Joe Dispenza is not all that well known in Europe but, in the US,  he is all the rage as a health guru. Despite pretending to be a top (neuro)scientist and expert of quantum physics, Dispenza has, as far as I can see, just three Medline-listed papers to his credit. Here are their abstracts:

No 1 is entitled “Meditation-induced bloodborne factors as an adjuvant treatment to COVID-19 disease

The COVID-19 pandemic has resulted in significant morbidity and mortality worldwide. Management of the pandemic has relied mainly on SARS-CoV-2 vaccines, while alternative approaches such as meditation, shown to improve immunity, have been largely unexplored. Here, we probe the relationship between meditation and COVID-19 disease and directly test the impact of meditation on the induction of a blood environment that modulates viral infection. We found a significant inverse correlation between length of meditation practice and SARS-CoV-2 infection as well as accelerated resolution of symptomology of those infected. A meditation “dosing” effect was also observed. In cultured human lung cells, blood from experienced meditators induced factors that prevented entry of pseudotyped viruses for SARS-CoV-2 spike protein of both the wild-type Wuhan-1 virus and the Delta variant. We identified and validated SERPINA5, a serine protease inhibitor, as one possible protein factor in the blood of meditators that is necessary and sufficient for limiting pseudovirus entry into cells. In summary, we conclude that meditation can enhance resiliency to viral infection and may serve as a possible adjuvant therapy in the management of the COVID-19 pandemic.

No 2 is entitled “The Mathematical Characterization of the Complexity Matching during a Healing Circle Meditation

The aim of the study is to evaluate the complexity matching between the HRVs of the group of Healers and the Healee during the various stages of the meditation protocol by employing a novel mathematical approach based on the H-rank algorithm. The complexity matching of heart rate variability is assessed before and during a heart-focused meditation in a close non-contact healing exercise. The experiment was conducted on a group of individuals (eight Healers and one Healee) throughout the various phases of the protocol over a ~75-minute period. The HRV signal for the cohort of individuals was recorded using high resolution HRV recorders with internal clocks for time synchronization. The Hankel transform (H-rank) approach was employed to reconstruct the real-world complex time series in order to measure the algebraic complexity of the heart rate variability and to assess the complexity matching between the reconstructed H-rank of the Healers and Healee during the different phases of the protocol. The integration of the embedding attractor technique was used to aid in the visualization of reconstructed H-rank in state space across the various phases. The findings demonstrate the changes in the degree of reconstructed H-rank (between the Healers and the Healee) during the heart-focused meditation healing phase by employing mathematically anticipated and validated algorithms. It is natural and thought-provoking to contemplate the mechanisms causing the complexity of the reconstructed H-rank to come closer; it can be explicitly stated that the purpose of the study is to communicate a clear idea that the H-rank algorithm is capable of registering subtle changes in the healing process, and that there was no intention of delving deep to uncover the mechanisms involved in the HRV matching. Therefore, the latter might be a distinct goal of future research.

No 3 is entitled “Large effects of brief meditation intervention on EEG spectra in meditation novices

This study investigated the impact of a brief meditation workshop on a sample of 223 novice meditators. Participants attended a three-day workshop comprising daily guided seated meditation sessions using music without vocals that focused on various emotional states and intentions (open focus). Based on the theory of integrative consciousness, it was hypothesized that altered states of consciousness would be experienced by participants during the meditation intervention as assessed using electroencephalogram (EEG). Brainwave power bands patterns were measured throughout the meditation training workshop, producing a total of 5616 EEG scans. Changes in conscious states were analysed using pre-meditation and post-meditation session measures of delta through to gamma oscillations. Results suggested the meditation intervention had large varying effects on EEG spectra (up to 50 % increase and 24 % decrease), and the speed of change from pre-meditation to post-meditation state of the EEG co-spectra was significant (with 0.76 probability of entering end-meditation state within the first minute). There was a main 5 % decrease in delta power (95 % HDI = [-0.07, -0.03]); a global increase in theta power of 29 % (95 % HDI = [0.27, 0.33]); a global increase of 16 % (95 % HDI = [0.13, 0.19]) in alpha power; a main effect of condition, with global beta power increasing by 17 % (95 % HDI = [0.15, 0.19]); and an 11 % increase (95 % HDI = [0.08, 0.14]) in gamma power from pre-meditation to end-meditation. Findings provided preliminary support for brief meditation in altering states of consciousness in novice meditators. Future clinical examination of meditation was recommended as an intervention for mental health conditions particularly associated with hippocampal impairments.


Me too!

It seems noteworthy that none of these articles support any of the many outlandish therapeutic claims Dispenza makes. In these papers, Dispenza give his affiliation as “Encephalon, LLC, Rainier, WA”. My seraches for this institution led me to the website of Dispenza’s company that tries to sell you all sorts of strange stuff and bombards you with irritating platitudes about spirituality and related subjects. Here you will also find several of Dispenza’s books. Naturally, they were big successes. The latest volume is called ‘Becoming Supernatural‘. Its topics include:

  • Demystifying the body’s seven energy centers and how you can balance them to heal
  • How to free yourself from the past by reconditioning your body to a new mind
  • How you can create reality in the generous present moment by changing your energy
  • The difference between third-dimension creation and fifth-dimension creation
  • The secret science of the pineal gland and its role in accessing mystical realms of reality
  • The distinction between space-time vs. time-space realities

By now, I am beginning to suspect that “Dr. Joe”, as he likes to wrongly depict himself, is an 18 carrat bullshitter, and I feel like learning more about him and his incredible popularity.

So, who is Joe Dispenza?

Dispenza trained as a chiropractor and, in 1986, he had a cycling accident that left him with six compressed vertebrae – at least that is what he likes to tell journalists. Allegedly, doctors told him he might never walk again and recommended spine surgery. But he knew better, checked himself out of the hospital, and reconstructed his vertebrae with his mind. Within 10 weeks he was walking again. “I made a deal with myself that if I was ever able to walk again I would spend the rest of my life studying the mind-body connection,” he claimed in a 2018 interview. If you don’t know about vertebral compression fractures, this sounds like an unusal recovery. If you, however, know about such injuries, the course of events is not abnormal.

Ever since, Dispenza uses his mind to heal others. His website contains ~40 testimonials of people claiming he cured their cancer or their multiple sclerosis or their infertility. Under the heading of “coherence healing,” the site boasts Dispenza and his disciples have “produced profound biological changes in multitudes of individuals around the world” and “observed hundreds of healings from a wide variety of health conditions.” In a 2020 interview Dispenza bragged about bringing children onstage at his retreats to cure them of “really serious health conditions.” He claimed to have cured a 76-year-old woman of Parkinson’s. He said his treatments cured illness faster than chemotherapy and that “profound and prestigious universities” in the United States wanted to study his methods. “[We’ve seen] tumors disappearing, people stepping out of wheelchairs, blind people seeing, deaf people hearing—crazy stuff,” he stated. “This is biblical proportions stuff.”

Dispenza likes to present himself as a scientist. “Learning” becomes “forging new synaptic connections” and changing one’s behavior becomes “reorganizing circuits.” He claims that meditating in the presence of others—combining “coherent fields,” as he calls this—opens up “interference patterns of fractal geometry that are doors to dimensions.” During performances, he occasionally brings followers on stage to share the “miracles” they experienced at the workshops that day, such as a woman who claimed she regained her depth perception after decades of encephalitis. “She got a biological upgrade … and all she did was make up her mind to do it,” he told the audience.

Back in 2012, I published a post entitled “How to become a charlatan” where I provide several practical instructions for all who intend to persue this career:

1. Find an attractive therapy and give it a fantastic name

Did I just say “straight forward”? Well, the first step isn’t that easy, after all. Most of the really loony ideas turn out to be taken: ear candles, homeopathy, aura massage, energy healing, urine-therapy, chiropractic etc. As a true charlatan, you want your very own quackery. So you will have to think of a new concept.

Something truly ‘far out’ would be ideal, like claiming the ear is a map of the human body which allows you to treat all diseases by doing something odd on specific areas of the ear – oops, this territory is already occupied by the ear acupuncture brigade. How about postulating that you have super-natural powers which enable you to send ‘healing energy’ into patients’ bodies so that they can repair themselves? No good either: Reiki-healers might accuse you of plagiarism.

But you get the gist, I am sure, and will be able to invent something. When you do, give it a memorable name, the name can make or break your new venture.

2. Invent a fascinating history

Having identified your treatment and a fantastic name for it, you now need a good story to explain how it all came about. This task is not all that tough and might even turn out to be fun; you could think of something touching like you cured your moribund little sister at the age of 6 with your intervention, or you received the inspiration in your dreams from an old aunt who had just died, or perhaps you want to create some religious connection [have you ever visited Lourdes?]. There are no limits to your imagination; just make sure the story is gripping – one day, they might make a movie of it.

3. Add a dash of pseudo-science

Like it or not, but we live in an age where we cannot entirely exclude science from our considerations. At the very minimum, I recommend a little smattering of sciency terminology. As you don’t want to be found out, select something that only few experts understand; quantum physics, entanglement, chaos-theory and Nano-technology are all excellent options.

It might also look more convincing to hint at the notion that top scientists adore your concepts, or that whole teams from universities in distant places are working on the underlying mechanisms, or that the Nobel committee has recently been alerted etc. If at all possible, add a bit of high tech to your new invention; some shiny new apparatus with flashing lights and digital displays might be just the ticket. The apparatus can be otherwise empty – as long as it looks impressive, all is fine.

4. Do not forget a dose of ancient wisdom

With all this science – sorry, pseudo-science – you must not forget to remain firmly grounded in tradition. Your treatment ought to be based on ancient wisdom which you have rediscovered, modified and perfected. I recommend mentioning that some of the oldest cultures of the planet have already been aware of the main pillars on which your invention today proudly stands. Anything that is that old has stood the test of time which is to say, your treatment is both effective and safe.

5. Claim to have a panacea

To maximise your income, you want to have as many customers as possible. It would therefore be unwise to focus your endeavours on just one or two conditions. Commercially, it is much better to affirm in no uncertain terms that your treatment is a cure for everything, a panacea. Do not worry about the implausibility of such a claim. In the realm of quackery, it is perfectly acceptable, even common behaviour to be outlandish.

6. Deal with the ‘evidence-problem’ and the nasty sceptics

It is depressing, I know, but even the most exceptionally gifted charlatan is bound to attract doubters. Sceptics will sooner or later ask you for evidence; in fact, they are obsessed by it. But do not panic – this is by no means as threatening as it appears. The obvious solution is to provide testimonial after testimonial.

You need a website where satisfied customers report impressive stories how your treatment saved their lives. In case you do not know such customers, invent them; in the realm of quackery, there is a time-honoured tradition of writing your own testimonials. Nobody will be able to tell!

7. Demonstrate that you master the fine art of cheating with statistics

Some of the sceptics might not be impressed, and when they start criticising your ‘evidence’, you might need to go the extra mile. Providing statistics is a very good way of keeping them at bay, at least for a while. The general consensus amongst charlatans is that about 70% of their patients experience remarkable benefit from whatever placebo they throw at them. So, my advice is to do a little better and cite a case series of at least 5000 patients of whom 76.5 % showed significant improvements.

What? You don’t have such case series? Don’t be daft, be inventive!

8. Score points with Big Pharma

You must be aware who your (future) customers are (will be): they are affluent, had a decent education (evidently without much success), and are middle-aged, gullible and deeply alternative. Think of Prince Charles! Once you have empathised with this mind-set, it is obvious that you can profitably plug into the persecution complex which haunts these people.

An easy way of achieving this is to claim that Big Pharma has got wind of your innovation, is positively frightened of losing millions, and is thus doing all they can to supress it. Not only will this give you street cred with the lunatic fringe of society, it also provides a perfect explanation why your ground-breaking discovery has not been published it the top journals of medicine: the editors are all in the pocket of Big Pharma, of course.

9. Ask for money, much money

I have left the most important bit for the end; remember: your aim is to get rich! So, charge high fees, even extravagantly high ones. If your treatment is a product that you can sell (e.g. via the internet, to escape the regulators), sell it dearly; if it is a hands-on therapy, charge heavy consultation fees and claim exclusivity; if it is a teachable technique, start training other therapists at high fees and ask a franchise-cut of their future earnings.

Over-charging is your best chance of getting famous – or have you ever heard of a charlatan famous for being reasonably priced?  It will also get rid of the riff-raff you don’t want to see in your surgery. Poor people might be even ill! No, you don’t want them; you want the ‘worried rich and well’ who can afford to see a real doctor when things should go wrong. But most importantly, high fees will do a lot of good to your bank account.


Could it be that Joe Dispenza is the most successful pupil of my crash-course in charlatanism?




I have been asked by the NY Post to answer a few questions about Dispenza. Allow me to present them to you here:

What makes Dispenza so dangerous (his advice, obsession with manifesting, etc.)?

Dispenza is at his most dangerous firstly when he implies that he can cure serious illness. In this way, he can cause the premature death of many patients. Secondly, he systematically undermines rational thinking which inevitably will cause significant harm to the already badly damaged US society. As Voltaire once pointed out: those who make you believe in absurdities can make you commit atrocities.


Why, in your opinion, has he amassed a cult-like following?

In 2012 I published a satirical piece entitled ‘How to become a charlatan’ (How to become a charlatan ( It seems to me that Dispenza followed my instructions to the letter providing a masterclass on fooling the public. He is a textbook example of a charismatic pseudoscientist (e.g.: I am a “researcher of epigenetics, quantum physics & neuroscience“) touting pure bullshit (e.g.: “new science is emerging that empowers all human beings to create the reality they choose”). He may be a charlatan but he is very good at it, runs a highly sophisticated campaign, and is laughing all the way to the bank.


For readers who find themselves enamored by Dispenza, what advice would you give them?

My advise is to take a step back and do a reality check: ‘Dr.Joe’ is not a medical doctor or neuroscientist but a chiropractor. He does not understand quantum physics. He has not published any meaningful scientific studies. His proclamations are nothing but platitudes or empty phrases. My advice also is to ask yourself: are you sure you are not the victim of your own gullibility?

33 Responses to Joe Dispenza: a chiropractor excells in pseudoscientific bullshit

  • And why am I not surprised to hear this Joey boy is a Chiropractor? LOL

    Thank you Dr. Edzard Ernst for this excellent well written and informative post!!

    Truly it is amazing how gullible so many people are these days. And like so often before, all we have to do is follow the money.

  • There a a page about Joe from back on July 10, 2013 at the Encyclopedia of American Loons.

  • Profound and prestigious Universities? Here’s one that is quite proud to have him on the faculty.

    I think there’s enough woo on this campus to fill your next book

  • I really appreciate the quality and depth of your essay.

    It’s incredible, really, how easily fooled people are these days. As has been the case so many times before, we need just follow the money.

  • Interesting… it seems Dr Ernst is very angry about the fact University California San Diego has tons of
    scientists doing Dr. Joe Dispenza’s research in his events and publishing scientific papers peer

    Maybe because Dr. Ernst retirement from Exeter University started in 2005 after all resources being cut for all new projects…and stayed without collaborators…untill 2011..when finally retired.

    Dr. Ernst, you must overcome your emotions: Envy, anger, ecc Those neurochemicals don’t contribute to your health.
    Go to inform yourself and look at University California San Diego for more information.

  • All that this planet needs its your smart analytical minds, scientists that are inventing more shit, to make the human ego more enormous than it already is.
    Hindu and Yogis lived 5000 years ago, had nothing but the nature, life was as simple as possible and yet they got the point.
    And here we are now, with so many scientific findings and technology, leaving in misery, hatred and wars?

    What better can you offer, he gives hope to people, and you?

    • I agree with you Aleksandra Beleska Smiljkova To a mere mortal like myself this DR. Erst. is coming across like he knows it all. Maybe he’s threatened? Perhaps Frightened? Definitely aggressive and arrogant . Dr Erst, Let people have hope for God’s sake . And stop selling me your pharmaceuticals and surgerys.

  • Thanks a lot, Dr. Ernst, I wish more people would read your article.

  • Your animosity is so obvious it’s humorous. You claim every one of his claims are bullshit or fraud yet you take no effort to show why they are false. Because they sound crazy and we should use common sense? LOL it was once common sense that you could sail off the flat earth. New ideas typically do sound laughable, at first. Why can’t a man show the findings from quantum physics without being a physicist himself? Do I not have the right to talk about how gasoline exploding drives a motor because I’m not a mechanic? Should I be forced to be a dumb redneck and say “well the gas just makes it go” bc I haven’t built or designed a motor myself? How about the LONG line of quantum physicists who began their lives as strict atheists but only after years in their career field did they come to a belief very similar to Joe Dispenza’s? You clearly do your homework I don’t need to type out all the names just google them. Literally dozens of PHD holding physicists are writing books claiming the same thing he says. What’s your argument to them? He’s putting people at risk bc they “maybe” won’t go to a real doctor. Pretty sure Americas hospitals and medical industry have KILLED far more people than the few cancer patients who died while searching for holistic approaches. Many of them probably did this because they saw their loved ones being murdered by “real science” and “real medicine” and by “real doctors”.
    Your trying to scare people away from an aspect of yourself your terrified to explore. And you are CLEARLY obsessed with this man. Maybe a weird fetish of some sort.

    • Brett Elicker wrote: “Do I not have the right to talk about how gasoline exploding drives a motor because I’m not a mechanic?”

      If the gasoline is “exploding” in your engine, either you don’t understand gasoline engines or you have something wrong with the engine, or both.

      In spark-ignition internal combustion engines, knocking (also knock, detonation, spark knock, pinging or pinking) occurs when combustion of some of the air/fuel mixture in the cylinder does not result from propagation of the flame front ignited by the spark plug, but when one or more pockets of air/fuel mixture explode outside the envelope of the normal combustion front. The fuel–air charge is meant to be ignited by the spark plug only, and at a precise point in the piston’s stroke. Knock occurs when the peak of the combustion process no longer occurs at the optimum moment for the four-stroke cycle. The shock wave creates the characteristic metallic “pinging” sound, and cylinder pressure increases dramatically. Effects of engine knocking range from inconsequential to completely destructive.

      “Freedom means the right to be stupid.”
      — Penn Jillette

    • @Brett Elicker
      So what you’re basically saying is that we should not only allow medically untrained people to make up and offer all sorts of hugely implausible health treatments, but we should even take them seriously?

      Because they sound crazy and we should use common sense?

      Yes. Or actually, we should reject those crazy ideas until evidence for their viability is delivered.

      Why can’t a man show the findings from quantum physics without being a physicist himself?

      Oh, they can – but only the real, proven findings. So no made-up quantum babble about how for instance our cells are somehow keeping healthy through ‘quantum vibrations’ or other vacuous drivel such as promulgated by Deepak Chopra and his ilk.

      Do I not have the right to talk about how gasoline exploding drives a motor because I’m not a mechanic?

      Again: sure you do – because you have learned about the working principles of internal combustion engines from real(!) mechanics, and of course because combustion engines have proven themselves literally a billion times over.
      But if you were to extol the blessings of e.g. ‘fuel magnets’, which are sold under the pretence that they save fuel, then you would face similar criticism as Joe Dispenza – simply because those fuel magnets are a fraud, a scam for which no evidence exists, just like no evidence exists for Dispenza’s outlandish and completely unproven SCAM claims. It’s as simple as that.

      Pretty sure Americas hospitals and medical industry have KILLED far more people than the few cancer patients who died while searching for holistic approaches.

      Sigh … that old chestnut again … Just turn it around to see how wrong you are: American hospitals and the medical industry have SAVED far more cancer patients than medically incompetent ‘holistic’ quacks such as Joe Dispenza.
      In fact, I think it is safe to assume that SCAMmers such as Joe Dispenza have not saved even one patient, but rather killed many, by suggesting that they can treat serious conditions such as cancer effectively in a ‘holistic’ way. Which is untrue. So far, there is not a single SCAM treatment with proven efficacy against any serious disease.

      The only thing that SCAMmers such as Joe Dispenza can treat with success is the condition of hyperpecuniosis in the leathery structure called ‘the wallet’. This is evidenced by the fact that this medically incompetent ‘holistic’ quack charges some $50,000 for a 1-hour talk about how great he is.

    • Hi Brett,
      I would be very interested in the PHDs who have written books on this subject. I know this is a late reply but I hope you can answer.

  • What about the energy healing allegedly performed by Jesus Chist? Was he too a charlatan?, as there is no mention of him being a doctor, or medically trained.
    My mother had reiki many years ago on her knee , she hadn’t even heard of it, 1 session may I add, she was healed after it. I don’t care about qualifications it is about energy, vibration, mother nature and love x

  • Dear Dr .Edzard!
    I’m writing to you from Russia where now so many people are going through the malicious influence of Dispenza works. In my country the special term ” Info gypsy” has appeared that denotes the practice of making money from the air and vulnerable human beings with physical and psychological problematic experience.
    A friend of mine now is going to participate into similar esoteric psychological training ( or better to say Neuro linguistic programming) with ” the guru of science, linguistic, psychology, energy healing and money aura) and I’m trying not to let her waste her money and soul there. So checking the socials of local Russian ” guru ” I’ ve come across the reference to Joe Dispenza book and the precise analysis of his postulates alongside with worshipping. I was scared. Then while searching the information of that supernatural Doctor I found your essay.
    Thank you. Thank you for your work from all my heart. Your critical approach gives me the base for the fight I will definitely have soon.
    From Russia with love. Valentina

  • Despite of billions spent on healthcare, people still die of diseases. Does that means medical profession is quackery? People work hard all their lives, pay taxes and still die broke. Is that not cheating in behalf of the government? Our system is not as perfect as its made out to be and that is why people are looking for something more. I think Joe Dispenza is pointing them out in the right direction. He has lots of stuff for free on the internet which is enough for people to get an idea of what he is saying but if they still want to pay, its their choice. At least, he is not forcing people to pay like our governments do.

  • I am so happy that people comment on this post and more and more are people of a “Kind” kind, compassionate people, people that opened their eyes and hearts for something more than just pure egoic and material life.
    Very good point on the last post.
    I would definitely pay money for Joes way, or any other spiritual way of healing, than the conventional way of bureaucratic health systems.
    He is talking about the power of the MiND, for God’s sake, and how to use the potential of what you already have!!

  • What do you think about scientific research that meditation prevent being infected by covid?
    Is this scam too?

  • “Dispenza uses his mind to heal others” FALSE. Get your facts straight ! Joe Dispenza has never claimed himself to be a healer, on the contrary, he teaches people how they can heal themselves using the power of the mind. He is simply someone who is fascinated by the human potential, helping people take their power back.
    One’s need to approach this topic with an open mind in order to understand what it is really about, without judgment. You sound like you just want to criticize his work.

    • Rita wrote: “Joe Dispenza has never claimed himself to be a healer, on the contrary, he teaches people how they can heal themselves using the power of the mind.”

      Not just themselves:

      Coherence Healing™

      Dr Joe’s Official Group – COHERENCE™

      COHERENCE comprises 180 highly experienced advanced student volunteers from around the world who conduct more than 120 remote Coherence Healing™ sessions each week.


      So, Rita is telling us that Joe Dispenza doesn’t practise what he preaches.

    • @Rita

      he teaches people how they can heal themselves using the power of the mind

      And you believe that? If people can heal themselves ‘using the power of the mind’, then why do we still have disease and suffering? Why didn’t humans learn to heal themselves this way thousands of years ago already? After all, people have been meditating and thinking about their life, health and well-being for thousands of years already. Can you point to any evidence for what Dispenza is claiming? (And no, I don’t mean stories from believers.) And why does any evidence that might support Dispenza’s ideas completely disappear as soon as one tries to look for it in any systematic, scientific way?

      One’s need to approach this topic with an open mind …

      I did approach this and related topics with an open mind. I even wrote a book about it.
      There are some important things to note about ‘having an open mind’:
      1. First and foremost, your mind should be open enough to entertain the notion that you (and people like Dispenza) might be wrong, even completely wrong.
      2. Do not confuse ‘having an open mind’ with ‘just believe what person x tells us’, especially if what they tell us sounds too good to be true, such as healing cancer or multiple sclerosis ‘through the power of the mind’.
      3. And there is of course the old wisdom: “It’s OK to have an open mind, but not so open that your brain falls out.”

      … in order to understand what it is really about.

      What it is really about is for Dispenza to make easy money off gullible people selling pseudoscientific nonsense. Dispenza has no medical or scientific training and has produced no scientific work of any importance.

      … without judgment.

      Ah, there we appear to have point 2 of my Open-Mind list: in my book, ‘without judgement’ equates to blind acceptance, without any critical look, even though this man’s claims are so spectacular that he should have received multiple Nobel Prizes if they were actually true.

      You sound like you just want to criticize his work.

      What a strange assertion. Nobody here ‘just wants to criticize’ anyone’s work for no good reason at all. The reason why this uneducated quack Dispenza is criticized is that he suggests that his knowledge can be used to heal all sorts of very nasty ailments such as cancer. There is no good, verifiable evidence at all that this is actually true.

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