Edzard Ernst

MD, PhD, MAE, FMedSci, FRSB, FRCP, FRCPEd.

I reported about the activities of Eurocam before (see here) and I was distinctly underwhelmed with this quackery lobby group. Now they have published a press release about a ‘worldwide declaration’ in favor of integrated medicine. Here is my translation of the press release (I will comment on the actual declaration at a later stage):

With a declaration, Eurocam and the European Federation of Homeopathic Patient’s Association, among others, call for an open scientific discourse, more research funds, and more promotion of young researchers in the field of integrative medicine. The declaration is supported by the German Central Association of Homeopathic Physicians and the Homeopathy Research Institute (HRI), among others. Integrative medicine combines conventional and complementary elements in health care for the benefit of patients. The goal is patient-centred and holistic health care. Already 130 organisations have committed themselves to these goals in the medical care of the population in the Declaration.

Integrative medicine integrates complementary and conventional methods

In addition, the Declaration advocates health care that takes the whole person into account in its psychological, mental, social and spiritual dimensions. Integrative medicine in the sense of the Declaration is patient-centred and supports the body’s own regulatory abilities. In addition, it is participatory and respects individual decisions with regard to medical care. It is committed to the evidence of medical procedures, which is based on experience, patient preferences and research findings. It incorporates cultural diversity and regional differences as well as the concepts of community health and planetary health. Integrative medicine uses natural and sustainable resources and integrates complementary and conventional medical procedures.

Integrative medicine: Opportunities especially for chronic diseases and side effects

The supporters of the Declaration see opportunities for integrative medicine above all in chronic and non-communicable diseases, as well as in the frequent side effects of conventional therapies and increasing antibiotic resistance. Conventional medicine is characterised by fragmentation and divisional thinking within medical care, as well as by the increasing specialisation of the health professions. The holistic view of the patient is thus left out. Against this backdrop, the Declaration advocates anchoring integrative medicine as a legal entitlement in health care and integrating it into national health care systems. International training standards should be adapted with integrative medicine in mind, and research projects should be promoted. At the same time, balanced and high-quality patient information is needed.

________________________________

This press release requires a few short comments, in my view:

  • “Integrative medicine combines conventional and complementary elements in health care for the benefit of patients.” Anyone who cares to research for longer than 10 minutes will find that very often the complementary elements are unproven and disproven treatments.
  • “The goal is patient-centred and holistic health care.” By integrating unproven and disproven treatments into routine care, medicine cannot become more patient-centred but must get less effective and more expensive.
  • “The Declaration advocates health care that takes the whole person into account in its psychological, mental, social and spiritual dimensions.” Any good healthcare aims at doing this.
  • “Individual decisions with regard to medical care” are respected in all forms of healthcare.
  • “Side effects of conventional therapies and increasing antibiotic resistance” are regrettable phenomena and much research is going on to minimize them. So-called alternative medicine (SCAM) has not yet been shown to offer a single solution to these problems.
  • “The holistic view of the patient is left out” in conventional medicine. One of the most popular fallacies with SCAM advocates is the strawman fallacy.

I find the text almost comical. It reveals thought processes that lack even the most fundamental rules of logic. One really does get the impression that it had been written by people who are deplorably naive, misinformed, and quite frankly stupid.

 

Dietary supplements are touted for cognitive protection, but supporting evidence is mixed. COSMOS-Mind tested whether daily administration of cocoa extract (containing 500 mg/day flavanols) versus placebo and a commercial multivitamin-mineral (MVM) versus placebo improved cognition in older women and men.

COSMOS-Mind, a large randomized two-by-two factorial 3-year trial, assessed cognition by telephone at baseline and annually. The primary outcome was a global cognition composite formed from mean standardized (z) scores (relative to baseline) from individual tests, including the Telephone Interview of Cognitive Status, Word List and Story Recall, Oral Trail-Making, Verbal Fluency, Number Span, and Digit Ordering. Using intention-to-treat, the primary endpoint was change in this composite with 3 years of cocoa extract use. The pre-specified secondary endpoint was change in the composite with 3 years of MVM supplementation. Treatment effects were also examined for executive function and memory composite scores, and in pre-specified subgroups at higher risk for cognitive decline.

A total of 2262 participants were enrolled (mean age = 73y; 60% women; 89% non-Hispanic White), and 92% completed the baseline and at least one annual assessment. Cocoa extract had no effect on global cognition (mean z-score = 0.03, 95% CI: -0.02 to 0.08; P = .28). Daily MVM supplementation, relative to placebo, resulted in a statistically significant benefit on global cognition (mean z = 0.07, 95% CI 0.02 to 0.12; P = .007), and this effect was most pronounced in participants with a history of cardiovascular disease (no history: 0.06, 95% CI 0.01 to 0.11; history: 0.14, 95% CI -0.02 to 0.31; interaction, nominal P = .01). Multivitamin-mineral benefits were also observed for memory and executive function. The cocoa extract by MVM group interaction was not significant for any of the cognitive composites.

The authors concluded that the Cocoa extract did not benefit cognition. However, COSMOS-Mind provides the first evidence from a large, long-term, pragmatic trial to support the potential efficacy of a MVM to improve cognition in older adults. Additional work is needed to confirm these findings in a more diverse cohort and to identify mechanisms to account for MVM effects.

This trial certainly has a few stunning features. For instance, its sample size was impressive and its follow-up period long. But it also has a few weak points. The study was conducted remotely via mail or telephone which means that compliance was impossible to control. Moreover, the outcome measures were subjective, and blinding was not checked. In addition, I fail to see a plausible mechanism of action. Most importantly, the generalizability of the results to the population at large seems questionable. It might make sense that older individuals many of whom might have low vitamin levels can profit from MVM. Whether this is also true for younger people who are well-nourished might be a different matter.

Lots of people have commented on King Charles’ swollen hands which can be seen in many pictures, not least the one on the cover of my biography of Charles. The king himself repeatedly referred to his ‘sausage fingers’ and has made light of the issue as far back as 1982. When William was born. At that time, he wrote to a friend: “I can’t tell you how excited and proud I am. He really does look surprisingly appetising and has sausage fingers just like mine.”

Now that he is King, we might need to worry; are his ‘sausage fingers’ a sign of a serious underlying disease?

Swollen fingers are normally due to fluid retention which can have many causes, e.g.:

Charles, The Alternative Prince: An Unauthorised Biography

  • allergy,
  • arthritis,
  • bursitis,
  • carpal tunnel syndrome,
  • diabetes,
  • gout,
  • heart failure,
  • injury,
  • infection,
  • kidney failure,
  • lymphoedema,
  • scleroderma,
  • sickle cell disease,
  • syphilis,
  • tendinitis,
  • tuberculosis.

The list is long and it contains some worrying diseases. Luckily, we can exclude many of them simply because Charles has had ‘sausage fingers’ for so many years. Thus, plausible options could be diabetes and scleroderma. The former can probably be excluded mainly because we would have long known about it.

But what about scleroderma?

Scleroderma (or systemic sclerosis, as it is also called) is a serious autoimmune condition that may be localized or generalized. The latter form is more serious. In 2020, it was noted that Charles’s feet also seemed to be swollen. In addition, his face often looks flushed (see also the cover of my book).

I know far too little about Charles’s health to make even a tentative diagnosis. Some features of scleroderma fit quite well, while others do not. In any case, I do hope Charles’s swellings have a more benign explanation. But, if scleroderma is the cause, the question obviously arises: is there a so-called alternative medicine (SCAM) for it?

A recent review stated that some study results have shown that vitamins D and E, probiotics, turmeric, l-arginine, essential fatty acids, broccoli, biofeedback, and acupuncture may be beneficial in systemic sclerosis care. However, large randomized clinical trials have not been conducted. In other words, SCAM has no proven benefit for the condition, and I would not recommend it.

Charles does know that, of course. In the past, he regularly made grand proclamations in favor of SCAM but, as soon as he was really ill, he always employed the best conventional healthcare can offer.

When I first heard about it, I thought it was a hoax – nobody can be that daft, I felt. Then I did a bit of research and found that I had been wrong: some people evidently can be that daft and are trying to promote a new SCAM.

Yes, I am speaking of SPERM SMOOTHIES.

And it’s not even a new thing. One sperm smoothie fan boasted 2 years ago: “My immune system is far stronger than it’s ever been. I no longer catch colds or the flu — even when my children get sick from school! I have such high energy levels, feel positive and enthusiastic and have focus and clarity throughout my day whilst most parents feel tired, crave junk food and struggle with forgetfulness.”

In 2021, THE SUN reported this :

Tracy Kiss, 33, from Buckinghamshire, previously told how she put a spoonful of her best friend’s donated semen into her drink every morning in a bid to boost her immunity.

The personal trainer, who is mum to Millie and Gabrille,  has previously advocated using sperm as a facial ointment.

She spoke as celebrity facialist Chelsee Lewis claimed it actually worked to reduce wrinkles.

On her bizarre beverage concoction, Tracy said: “I’d been feeling run down and had no energy, but now I’m full of beans and my mood has improved.

“It can taste really good – depending on what my friend has been eating. My other mates think I’m strange, but I don’t give a toss.”

Tracy, who is a vegan, roped her single pal into giving her his semen. She previously told how he pops round with a fresh tub three times a week.

“I know he’s healthy, doesn’t smoke, drink or do drugs and I made him have an STI check,” she said.

“When I first approached him, he was concerned I’d use it to impregnate myself.

“But once I’d convinced him it was for my beauty regime he agreed – after all, he has a regular supply at hand!”

Tracy, a qualified nutritional adviser and personal trainer, told how she kept it in her fridge.

She mixes the semen with fruit, seeds, coconut or almond milk – but is also happy to drink it on its own.

“Every batch tastes different, depending on what he’s been eating,” she said.

“If he’s been drinking alcohol or eaten something particularly pungent like asparagus, I ask him to give me a heads up so I know not to drink it neat.

“Things like pineapple and peppermint make it taste better, but I’ll happily take it straight off a spoon usually.”

Tracy has filmed a YouTube video where she talks through her unusual remedy and explains what it tastes like.

“We look at its smoothness and texture, discuss its benefits and then I show people who I use a teaspoon to eat the sperm,” she said.

“Sperm is an awesome product and we should stop being so ridiculous about it – the health benefits have been well researched and more women and men should take advantage of it particularly as its made by our own bodies and doesn’t contain e-numbers and chemicals.”

________________________________

The question I ask myself is this: are sperm smoothies really a new SCAM or are they just a way for some strange people to get their 5 minutes of fame? I sincerely hope it is the latter.

All healthcare professionals have an ethical obligation to be truthful and act in the best interest of the patient by adhering to the best available evidence. Providing false or misleading information to patients or consumers is thus a breach of medical ethics. In Canada, the authorities have started taking action against nurses that violate these ethical principles.

Now it has been reported that a former registered nurse in West Kelowna has been suspended for four weeks after giving a vulnerable client anti-vaccine information and recommending “alternative pseudoscience” treatments.

According to the terms of a consent agreement posted on the B.C. College of Nurses and Midwives site, Carole Garfield was under investigation for actions that happened in September 2021. The college claims that Garfield contacted the client when she was off duty, using her personal mobile phone and email to give information against the COVID-19 vaccine and recommending so-called alternative medicine (SCAM). The exact nature of the “pseudoscience modalities” Garfield recommended to the client was not listed in the college’s notice.

Garfield’s nursing licence was cancelled back in April, according to the college’s registry. It’s unclear how exactly the four-week suspension will be applied. In addition to her month-long suspension and a public reprimand, Garfield is not allowed to be the sole nurse on duty for six months. She will also be given education about ethics, boundaries, and client confidentiality, as well as the province’s professional nursing standards. “The inquiry committee is satisfied that the terms will protect the public,” read a statement from the college.

In my view, it is high time for professional bodies to act against healthcare professionals who issue misleading information to their patients. In the realm of so-called alternative medicine (SCAM), issuing false or misleading information is extremely common and causes untold harm. Such harm would be largely preventable if the professional bodies in charge would start acting responsibly in the best interest of patients. It is high time that they follow the Canadian example!

Even though most people do not think about it in this way, tea is a herbal remedy. We know that it is pleasant, but is it also effective?

This study explored the associations between tea drinking and the incident risk of type 2 diabetes mellitus(T2 DM). A dynamic prospective cohort study among a total of 27 841 diabetes-free permanent adult residents randomly selected from 2, 6, and 7 rural communities between 2006-2008, 2011-2012, and 2013-2014, respectively. Questionnaire survey, physical examination, and laboratory test were carried out among the participants. In 2018, the researchers conducted a follow-up through the electronic health records of residents. Cox regression models were applied to explore the association between tea drinking and the incident risk of T2 DM and estimate the hazard ratio(HR), and its 95%CI.

Among the 27 841 rural community residents in Deqing County, 10 726(39%) were tea drinkers, 8215 (77%) of which were green tea drinkers. A total of 883 new T2 DM incidents were identified until December 31, 2018, and the incidence density was 4.43 per 1000 person-years (PYs). The incidence density was 4.07/1000 PYs in those with tea drinking habits and 4.71/1000 PYs in those without tea drinking habits. The incidence density was 3.79/1000 PYs in those with green tea drinking habits. After controlling for sex, age, education, farming, smoking, alcohol consumption, dietary preference, body mass index, hypertension, impaired fasting glucose, and family history of diabetes, the risk of T2 DM among rural residents with tea drinking habits was 0.79 times higher than that among residents without tea drinking habits(HR=0.79, 95%CI 0.65-0.96), and the risk of T2 DM among residents with green tea drinking habits was 0.72 times higher than that among residents without tea drinking habits(HR=0.72, 95%CI 0.58-0.89). No significant associations were found between other kinds of tea and the risk of T2 DM, nor the amount of green tea-drinking.

The authors concluded that drinking green tea may reduce the risk of T2 DM among adult population in rural China.

Epidemiological studies of this nature resemble big fishing expeditions that can bring up all sorts of rubbish and – if lucky – also some fish. The question thus is whether this study identified an interesting association or just some odd rubbish.

A quick look into Medline seems to suggest great caution. Here are the conclusions from a few further case-control studies:

Thus the question of whether tea drinking might prevent diabetes remains open, in my view.

Yet, the paper might teach us two important lessons:

  1. Case-control studies must be taken with a pinch of salt.
  2. Correlation is not the same as causation.

The Center for Inquiry (CFI) is a charitable nonprofit organization dedicated to defending science and critical thinking. CFI’s vision is a world in which evidence, science, and compassion—rather than superstition, pseudoscience, or prejudice—guide public policy.

It has been reported that the CFI, through its Office of Consumer Protection from Pseudoscience, warned Amazon.com that the marketing and sale of unapproved homeopathic drugs betrays consumers’ trust and runs afoul of federal law. In a letter sent to the world’s largest online retailer, attorneys for CFI charged that Amazon has legal and moral obligations to end its trade in the prohibited items and urged the company to immediately cease the sale of unapproved drugs marketed as medicine for babies, infants, and children.

In Amazon’s Health Care Products department, a search for “homeopathic” returns more than 10,000 product results–each claiming to treat a host of health issues, ranging from “nerve pain” and “fever” to “surgical wounds” and “fibroids and ovarian cysts.” Marketed with names such as “Boiron RhinAllergy Kids” and “Hyland’s 4Kids Pain Relief,” many items are explicitly sold as medicine for children. However, not one homeopathic drug has been approved by the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) as required by the federal Food, Drug & Cosmetic Act.

“Amazon built its business and public reputation on assurances it prioritizes consumer trust above all else,” says CFI Vice President and General Counsel Nick Little. “It’s impossible to be ‘Earth’s most customer-centric company’ while aggressively promoting thousands of snake oil products to parents. If Amazon truly wants to put its customers first, the company should be protecting them from sellers of sham treatments and faux medicine, not profiting from it.”

The FDA recently issued a warning letter to Amazon over the platform’s prohibited sale of mole and skin tag removal products that lack FDA approval. CFI makes clear that the same prohibitions apply to homeopathic drugs sold on Amazon.com. The letter also highlights deceptive marketing practices used to sell the products, noting that the industry’s own figures found 85 percent of those who purchased a brand of homeopathic product were not aware the item was actually homeopathic.

“Amazon recently announced partnerships to help crack-down on phony wrestling memorabilia,” Little notes. “We think protecting children against harmful homeopathic drugs is a bit more deserving of the company’s attention and hope Amazon accepts our offer to help identify these particularly problematic products for removal.”

You can read CFI’s letter to Amazon here.

Why are we here?

Who am I?

What is my life’s purpose?

These are BIG questions indeed.

And here are the answers:

The spiritually transformative work of Life Between Lives (LBL) hypnotherapy began with one man’s dedication and curiosity to search for answers to the great questions about life and beyond. Today, the Michael Newton Institute (MNI), founded by Dr. Michael Newton, and our global network of over 200 LBL Facilitators hold his vision for humanity and carry on his passion for researching the Afterlife and bringing the evolving modality of LBL hypnotherapy to humanity.

Our Vision

For humanity to live the unconditional love and wisdom of Spiritual Consciousness.

Our Mission

To raise personal and collective consciousness, by bringing the healing and wisdom of Life Between Lives to individuals around the globe, reawakening their immortal identity and integrating Spiritual Consciousness.

Who We Are

The Michael Newton Institute is a not-for-profit organization, bringing together a worldwide collective of trained Facilitators to offer Life Between Lives hypnotherapy, as pioneered by Dr. Michael Newton.Dr Michael Newton. We are committed to providing opportunities globally for people to experience their soul state and a reconnection to the wisdom of the After-life / Inter-life.

What We Offer the World

We advocate for the Spiritual Realm, sharing the wisdom received by individuals around the globe through the exploration of their existence between lives by offering:

  • Life Between Lives Sessions – Access to LBL sessions for individuals all around the world through our network of members.
  • LBL Facilitator Network – Our MNI members are a diverse group of over 200 individuals who offer LBL to clients all around the world in 40 countries and over 25 languages within their own practices.
  • LBL Training – Empowering new generations to learn LBL and continue this important work for their own clients. We create and nurture a community of Life Between Lives Facilitators to connect, learn and grow, so they may support their clients.
  • Stories of the Afterlife – Our quarterly journal shares the latest LBL cases and information about LBL (public subscriptions welcome).
  • Publications – Continued publication of Dr Michael Newtons and the Institutes own books ensure the wisdom of LBL work is accessible to all people. Over 1 million people have enjoyed these books and learnt from others, Life Between Lives spiritually transformative experience, applying the wisdom to bring new insight, awareness and healing to their own lives.
  • Research – We continue to explore the afterlife and conduct studies into the therapeutic benefits of LBL.
  • Facebook Community – Our thriving social media discussion group has over 8,000 members who discuss the work of Dr Michael Newton, MNI and LBL every day.

You can read about Dr. Newton and the development of the Michael Newton Institute over the last 20 years at History of MNI. The Michael Newton Institute is overseen by a Board of Directors and Volunteer Teams.

Our LBL Facilitator Community

MNI is an organisation of like-minded, yet diverse individuals who are called to help others expand their awareness of their immortal identity furthering Dr Michael Newton’s legacy. Individuals in our LBL facilitator member community can be found in 40 countries around the world.

We understand more than anyone that our higher guidance draws us together for a common purpose. Many feel the call to join the Michael Newton Institute, often inspired by reading our publications, or through a life changing experience in their own Life Between Lives session. MNI is always seeking to grow the community, if you feel drawn you may consider LBL training.

After completing LBL training and certification requirements, certified LBL facilitators join our global membership community offering LBL to their own clients in their independent practices. LBL work can be a spiritually transformative experience for many clients and MNI LBL Facilitators consider the offering of LBL work to others an honour.

Values and Ethics

As LBL Facilitators, and Members of the Michael Newton Institute (MNI) we are:

  • Dedicated and passionate about reawakening humanity’s connection to the unconditional love and wisdom of Spiritual Consciousness for healing and personal growth.
  • Trusting in the innate wisdom within everyone and All That Is.
  • Compassionate to those we serve and each other, seeking to transcend the human condition.

We are a Spiritual based organization. The Michael Newton Institute is committed to maintaining the highest standard of human and spiritual Values and Ethics in delivering our Mission for humanity. Our LBL Facilitators and those in many volunteers in roles throughout our organization commit to following the MNI Code of Ethics in their own practices, or working on behalf of MNI. Our Alliance Hypnotherapy and Alliance Past Life Regression Program partners also commit to these ethical standards, to support our Vision and Mission.

_____________________________

So:

Why are we here?

Who am I?

What is my life’s purpose?

I found one therapist offering these services, and it was her website that provided some plausible answers:

We are here to be exploited by charlatans.

We are considered to be gullible morons.

Our purpose in life is to support quacks.

The costs for the sessions range from 90 to 795 Euros!

The last few days, I spent much of my time answering questions from journalists on the subject of Charles lll. [interestingly, almost exclusively journalists NOT writing for UK newspapers]. Unsurprisingly, they all wanted to know about the way Charles managed to close down my research department at Exeter University some 10 years ago.

The story is old and I am a bit tired of repeating it. So, nowadays I often refer people to Wikipedia where a short paragraph sums it up:

Ernst was accused by Prince Charles’ private secretary of having breached a confidentiality agreement regarding the 2005 Smallwood report. After being subjected to a “very unpleasant” investigation by the University of Exeter, the university “accepted his innocence but continued, in his view, to treat him as ‘persona non grata’. All fundraising for his unit ceased, forcing him to use up its core funding and allow its 15 staff to drift away.”[15] He retired in 2011, two years ahead of his official retirement.[10][25] In July 2011, a Reuters article described his “long-running dispute with the Prince about the merits of alternative therapies” and stated that he “accused Britain’s heir-to-the-throne Prince Charles and other backers of alternative therapies on Monday of being ‘snake-oil salesmen’ who promote products with no scientific basis”, and that the dispute “had cost him his job – a claim Prince Charles’s office denied”.[14][26] Ernst is a republican, and has supported Republic, an organisation which campaigns for the abolition of the British monarchy.[27]

Re-reading it yesterday, I noticed that the text is not entirely correct (a full account can be found here). Let me explain:

  • There never was a formal confidentiality agreement with signature etc. But I did feel bound to keep the contents of the Smallwood report confidential.
  • The investigation by my University was not just ‘very unpleasant’, it was also far too long. It lasted 13 months! I had to take lawyers against my own University!
  • In addition, it was unnecessary, not least because a University should simply establish the facts and, if reasonable, defend its professor from outside attacks. The facts could have been established over a cup of tea with the Vice Chancellor in less than half an hour.
  • When my department had been destroyed in the process, I retired voluntarily and was subsequently re-employed for half a year to help find a successor. In retrospect, I see this move as a smart ploy by the University to keep me sweet and prevent me from going to the press.
  • A successor was never hired; one good candidate was found but he was told that he had to find 100% of the funds to do the job. Nobody of high repute would have found this acceptable, and thus the only good candidate was not even tempted to accept the position.
  • The snake oil salesman story is an entirely separate issue (see here) that happened years later.
  • It is true that Charles’s office denied that Charles knew about his 1st private secretary writing to my Vice Chancellor asking him to investigate my alleged breach of confidence. However, as Sir Michael Peat started his letter with the words “I AM WRITING … AS THE PRINCE OF WALES’ PRIVATE SECRETARY…, I find this exceedingly hard to believe.
  • Even though Charles did a sterling job in trying, I did not become a republican. I do have considerable doubts that Charles will be a good King (his reign might even be the end of the monarchy), and I did help the republican cause on several occasions but I never formally joined any such group (in general, I am not a joiner of parties, clubs or interest groups).

To one of the journalists who recently interviewed me, I explained that I do not in the slightest feel sore, bitter, or angry on a personal level. Going into early retirement suited me perfectly fine, and thanks to that decision I enjoy life to the full. The significance of this story lies elsewhere: Charles’ intervention managed to permanently close the then worldwide-only department that systematically and critically investigated so-called alternative medicine. If you know another, please let me know.

It is not often that I publish a paper with a philosopher in a leading journal of philosophy. In fact, it is the first time, and I am rather proud of it – so much so that I must show my readers (the article is freely available via the link below and I encourage everyone to read the full text) the abstract of our article entitled WHY HOMOEOPATHY IS PSEUDOSCIENCE (Synthese (2022) 200:394):

Homoeopathy is commonly recognised as pseudoscience. However, there is, to date, no systematic discussion that seeks to establish this view. In this paper, we try to fill this gap. We explain the nature of homoeopathy, discuss the notion of pseudoscience, and provide illustrative examples from the literature indicating why homoeopathy fits the
bill. Our argument contains a conceptual and an empirical part.

In the conceptual part, we introduce the premise that a doctrine qualifies as a pseudoscience if, firstly, its proponents claim scientific standing for it and, secondly, if they produce bullshit to defend it, such that, unlike science, it cannot be viewed as the most reliable knowledge on its topic. In the empirical part, we provide evidence that homoeopathy fulfils both criteria. The first is quickly established since homoeopaths often explicitly claim scientificity.

To establish the second, we dive into the pseudo-academic literature on homoeopathy to provide evidence of bullshit in the arguments of homoeopaths. Specifically, we show that they make bizarre ontological claims incompatible with natural science, illegitimately shift the burden of proof to sceptics, and mischaracterise, cherry-pick, and misreport the evidence. Furthermore, we demonstrate that they reject essential parts of established scientific methodology and use epistemically unfair strategies to immunise their doctrine against recalcitrant evidence.

And here is our conclusion:

At the beginning of the paper, we noted that homoeopathy is commonly named one of the prototypical pseudosciences. However, there has been, to date, no comprehensive discussion as to what makes it a pseudoscience. Moreover, the problem is not trivial since the most well-known and influential demarcation criteria, such as Popper’s falsifiability criterion and Kuhn’s problem-solving criterion, cannot account for it, as we have shown. We have tried to fill this research gap using a novel bullshitology-based approach to the demarcation problem. Following this approach, we have argued that homoeopathy should be regarded as pseudoscience because its proponents claim scientific standing for it and produce argumentative bullshit to defend it, thus violating important epistemic standards central to science.

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