Shiatsu is a popular alternative therapy with a remarkable void of research. According to one of the rare reviews on the subject, Shiatsu is a form of Japanese massage, working on the meridian system of the body; the energetic pathways along which the acupuncture points are placed. The theory for shiatsu is based in the system of traditional Chinese medicine, understood in China for over 2000 years. Shiatsu can be valuable for reintegrating the body, mind and spirit, helping with the general energy level of the body as well as specific symptoms… Feelings of deep relaxation, support and increased vitality are common following a shiatsu treatment. The method, strength and frequency of treatment can be varied to suit individual need…

If this seems an optimistic evaluation to you, have a look on the Internet where bogus claims for Shiatsu abound. But such uncritical nonsense is, of course, neither informative nor responsible. In a previous post, I have been a little more critical about the value of Shiatsu and concluded that is an unproven therapy. I reached this conclusion mainly because, for our Oxford Handbook of Complementary Medicine (2008), we systematically researched the evidence and found very little of it. In fact, we concluded that NO CONVINCING DATA AVAILABLE TO SUGGEST THAT SHIATSU IS EFFECTIVE FOR ANY CONDITION.

Since then, a systematic review has been published. The Shiatsu studies found comprised just one single RCT, three controlled non-randomised, one within-subjects study, one observational study and 3 uncontrolled studies investigating mental and physical health issues. The authors, who usually are very much in favour of alternative therapies, concluded that more research is needed, particularly for Shiatsu, where evidence is poor.

This seems to indicate that our verdict of 2008 is still not far off the mark.

And what about the risks?

On this aspect of Shiatsu, it is even harder to find reliable information. One website, for instance, warns that certain individuals should take caution and consult a physician before receiving shiatsu. For example, there’s some concern that shiatsu may have harmful effects in pregnant women, patients who have recently undergone chemotherapy or radiation, and people with such conditions as osteoporosis, heart disease, and blood clotting disorders. Additionally, shiatsu should not be performed directly over bruises, inflamed skin, unhealed wounds, tumors, abdominal hernia, or areas of recent fractures. Shiatsu should also be avoided immediately after surgery, and by people with infectious skin disease, rash, or open wounds.

But what about adverse reactions and complications?

Another website, tells us that, when performed properly, shiatsu is not associated with any significant side effects. Some people may experience mild discomfort, which usually disappears during the course of the treatment session.

So, is Shiatsu without side-effects?

The answer, I am afraid, is NO – but has to dig deep to find even a tentative answer to this question.

A prospective, 6 months cohort, pragmatic study of the effects and experience of shiatsu within three countries (Austria, Spain and the UK) has been published by UK authors in 2009 . Data were collected via postal questionnaires, including on client-perceived negative responses. Shiatsu was delivered by the practitioner in routine practice. 633 clients provided full follow-up data, a response rate of 67%. A prevalence rate of 12-22 per 100 of client-perceived ‘negative responses’ was found across the three countries. Transitional effects accounted for 82% of all the client-described ‘negative’ responses. Nine clients (1.4% of the total), relating to 10 sets of written comments, reported a negative response that was classified as ‘a potentially adverse event or effect’ that might represent a risk to client safety.

In addition there are much more serious complications such as strokes. These might be extreme rarities – but who knows? Nobody! Why? Because, as with most alternative therapies, there is no reporting or monitoring system for such events. Therefore the true prevalence is anyone’s guess.

The bottom line, I am afraid, is all too familiar: There is no good evidence for effectiveness and some evidence of risk – which can only mean one thing: the proven benefits do not outweigh the potential harm.


12 Responses to Shiatsu: do the benefits outweigh the risks?

  • “Shiatsu can be valuable for reintegrating the body, mind and spirit,…” Is this a claim that Shiatsu is an effective treatment for schizophrenia?

  • I was working for a bbc radio station when the presenter had a session of shiatsu before the show as part of a feature. He passed out collapsed and woke up after being sick all over the studio several minutes after his show should have started. Needless to say, he didn’t go back on air that day. It was a very scary experience for all concerned.

  • This site is terrible. Stop bagging all the natural therapies and remedies that actually work.
    Everyone seems to forget that Modern medicine is the leading #1 cause of death in the world. FACT
    Doctors and Scientists should stop lining pockets with dirty money that comes from killing people with toxic drugs, treatments and procedures. FACT

    Wake up people…
    For many thousands of years we have used nature to heal.
    For 60+ years drug therapy has attempted to copy (patent) nature with disastrous results.
    Which one is alternative?
    Wake up people because your being deceived by the sick care industry
    And you are paying for it with your life. FACT

    • what a bonanza of fallacies you are able to produce in a short paragraph!
      man you have talent!!!

    • Something has led to a massive increase in the average human lifespan over the past hundred years or so. FACT

      If modern medicine is the leading #1 cause of death in the world, it doesn’t appear to be very effective in that role!

    • Agreed. Go to a doctor and what happens he gives you a prescription for pills and before you know it you will have accumulated a carrier bag or two full of drugs. Doctors / scientists and Big Pharma are all lining their pockets at our expense. Look at your friends and family and how many carrier bags full of meds they may have I used to put doctors on a pedestal but these days, I have neither faith nor respect for them. Having worked in a GP surgery for 25 years I could elaborate further but my point is made.

  • Absence of evidence is not evidence of absence.

    Just because no adequate research has done on Shiatsu does not mean that it is therefore quackery, it just means that no adequate research has been done yet

    • how clever!!!
      but in responsible medicine, we tend to discard treatments that are not evidence-based and focus where possible on those that are – and the latter category does NOT include shiatsu!

  • It would be interesting to know the back ground of the Shiatsu practitioners that were involved with the study mentioned. We have just started visiting a Japanese Shiatsu practitioner in the UK, an older gentleman who tells me he studied at a monastery in Japan from birth. I obviously can’t prove this but I am taking it as true. After one treatment my wife could bend her toes without pain, something she has not been able to do for many months, and his diagnosis of her overall health is frighteningly accurate. I was referred to this gentleman by a friend who had carpal tunnel syndrome, as I have. His was worse than mine and stopped him from sleeping, it was cured after three sessions? Mine is improving. Just as there is a difference in the quality of GP I am sure the same applies to Shiatsu practitioners.

  • Here you can read the Collected Reports of The Shiatsu Therapy Research Lab (the official Namikoshi style recognized by the Ministry of Health, integrated in the National Health System) made between 1998-2012 and 2013-2017 at the Japan Shiatsu College from Tokyo, JAPAN ->

  • How is it possible to claim there are is no solid evidence then claim there are risks? This article is written on biased perspective.

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