On this blog, we have discussed many different alternative treatments. As it turns out, hardly any of them fulfil the criteria for being used routinely in clinical practice. But here I present one that might be the exception.
The Feldenkrais Method (FM) aims to reduce pain or limitations in movement, to improve physical function, and to promote general wellbeing by increasing the patient’s awareness of herself and by expanding her movement repertoire. The FM is an educational method similar to the Alexander Technique.
The practitioner directs his attention to the patient’s habitual movement patterns which are inefficient or strained, and teaches new patterns using gentle, slow, repeated movements. Slow repetition is believed to be necessary to impart a new habit and allow it to begin to feel normal. These movements may be passive (performed by the practitioner on the recipient’s body) or active (performed by the patient).
At this point, we should ask: but does FM really and demonstrably work?
Ten years ago, we published a systematic review of all RCTs available at the time testing the effectiveness of FM. Six studies met our inclusion criteria. They were all burdened with significant methodological weaknesses. The indications included multiple sclerosis, neck/shoulder problems and chronic back pain. All but one trial reported positive results. We concluded that the evidence for the FM is encouraging but, due to the paucity and low quality of studies, by no means compelling.
Since then, more research has become available, and an update of our research seemed necessary. This new review aimed to update the evidence for the benefits of FM. Included studies were appraised using the Cochrane risk of bias approach and trial findings analysed individually and collectively where possible. Twenty RCTs were included (an additional 14 to our earlier systematic review). The population, outcome, and findings were highly heterogeneous. Meta-analyses were performed with 7 studies, finding in favour of the FM for improving balance in ageing populations. Single studies reported significant positive effects for reduced perceived effort and increased comfort, body image perception, and dexterity. Risk of bias was high in all studies, thus tempering some results. The effects seemed to be generic, supporting the proposal that FM works on a learning paradigm rather than disease-based mechanisms.
The authors concluded that further research is required; however, in the meantime, clinicians and professionals may promote the use of FM in populations interested in efficient physical performance and self-efficacy.
One might discuss whether or not FM is truly an alternative therapy; it has many characteristics of a physiotherapy, and physiotherapists often employ FM. On the other hand, it is considered to be alternative by some practitioners. So, for the purpose of this article, I will call it alternative.
The evidence for FM has become substantially more promising since we last looked at it systematically. The indication for which the evidence is most convincing is the improvement of elderly people’s balance. Considering that FM is virtually risk-free and inexpensive, I feel that it is one of the rare alternative therapy that could be integrated into clinical routine (for this particular indication).