Surely, homeopathy must be free of adverse-effects! The typically highly diluted remedies contain no active molecules and therefore they cannot possibly cause any harm whatsoever. One could even go one step further and argue that the generally acknowledged absence of side-effects made homeopathy as popular as it is today. Why then did we just publish a systematic review of adverse effects of homeopathy?
We conducted searches in 5 electronic databases and also looked through our own, extensive files on homeopathy. This resulted in 38 primary reports of adverse effects associated with the use of homeopathy. The total number of patients thus affected was not small: 1159; 4 fatalities were also reported. Our conclusion was that “homeopathy has the potential to harm patients in both direct and indirect ways”.
I already hear homeopaths shouting at me: “but this is nothing compare to the millions of patients who suffer side-effects of conventional drugs!” I don’t doubt this for a second; our aim was not to show that homeopathy is less safe than mainstream medicine, we merely wanted to test the hypothesis that numerous adverse-effects are on record.
So, how can a therapy that usually relies on nothing more than placebos cause harm? Many of the patients that experienced harm did so because the use of homeopathy meant that effective treatments were given too late or not at all. In our book TRICK OR TREATMENT, we describe the case of a homeopath who collaborated with my research team while conducting a clinical trial of homeopathy; before the trial had been completed, she died of cancer simply because she self-treated it with homeopathy and thus lost valuable time for proper therapy which might have saved her life. I have said it often and I say it again: if used as an alternative to an effective cure, even the most “harmless” treatment can become life-threatening.
In other cases, adverse effects can occur when remedies are not highly diluted. Most but not all homeopathic remedies are devoid of active molecules. Homeopaths prescribe treatments like arsenic and other highly poisonous substances; if such a remedy is not administered in a much diluted form, it can easily kill whoever is unfortunate enough to take it.
The reactions (letters yet to be published in the journal) by proponents of homeopathy to our article was predictable: they claimed we contradicted our published statements that homeopathy was without any effect at all, they tried to find mistakes in our analysis, they claimed that we had a track record of publishing sloppy research, and they even asked the editor to withdraw our paper [I am pleased to report that he resisted this invitation]. Our response to these comments and allegations pointed out that ad hominem attacks are transparent attempts to get rid of unwanted truths – in fact, they are not just transparent but also never successful in suppressing the evidence and, in the final analysis, they merely disclose the fallacies of the opponent.