critical thinking

Since more than 20 years, I have been writing about the risks of alternative therapies. One of my first papers on this issue was published in 1995 and focussed on acupuncture. Here is its abstract:

The use of acupuncture is widespread. The procedure is often claimed to be totally, or at least reasonably, safe. The published evidence regarding its potential risks is reviewed. The repeated and/or inappropriate use of an acupuncture needle carries the risk of infections. Amongst others, AIDS and hepatitis have been transmitted. Acupuncture needles may also traumatise tissues and organs. Pneumothorax is the most frequent complication caused in this way. Finally, needles may break and fragments can be dislodged into distant organs. A serious and more general concern related to the safety of acupuncture is the competence of the therapist, whether or not medically qualified. The “philosophy” of acupuncture is not in line with orthodox diagnostic skills; therefore acupuncturists can be dangerously unconcerned with diagnostic categories. Thus indirect risks might add significantly to the direct risks of acupuncture. It is concluded that the true risk of acupuncture cannot be estimated. Whatever its extent, it could and probably should be lowered by enforcing educational and clinical standards.

My reason for banging on about the potential harms (direct and indirect risks) of alternative medicine is fairly obvious: I want to alert healthcare professionals and consumers to the fact that these treatments may not be as harmless as they are usually advertised to be. Yet, I have often be called an alarmist fear-monger. In my view, nothing could be further from the truth.

Thinking about fear-mongering, I began to ask myself whether those who regularly accuse me are the ones guilty of the deed. Are alternative practitioners fear-mongers? Surely not all of them, but some clearly are. Here are a few of the strategies they use for their fear-mongering.


Perhaps the most obvious way to instil fear into people is to tell them that they are affected by a disease or condition they do not have. Many alternative practitioners do exactly that!

  • A chiropractor might tell you that you have a subluxation in your spine.
  • A naturopath would inform you that your body is full of toxins.
  • An acupuncturist will tell you that your life energy is blocked.
  • A homeopath might warn you that your vital force is too low.

These diagnoses have one thing in common: they do not exist. They are figments of the therapist’s imagination. And they have another thing in common: the abnormalities need to be corrected, and – surprise, surprise – the very therapy that the practitioner specialises in happens to be just the ticket for that purpose.

  • The chiropractor will tell you that a simple spinal adjustment will solve the problem.
  • The naturopath will inform you that a bit of detox will eliminate the toxins.
  • The acupuncturist will tell you that his needles will de-block your chi.
  • The homeopath will persuade you that he can find the exact remedy to revive your vital force.

And there we have the third thing these diagnoses have in common: they are all treatable, will all result in a nice bill, and will all improve the cash-flow of the therapist.


But often, it is not even necessary for an alternative therapist to completely invent a diagnosis. Patients usually consult an alternative practitioner with some sort of symptom – frequently with what one might call a medical triviality that does not need any treatment at all but can be dealt with differently, for instance, by issuing some life-style advice or just simple re-assurance that nothing major is amiss. But for the fear-monger, this is not enough. He feels the need to administer his therapy, and for that purpose he needs to medicalize trivialities :

  • A low mood thus becomes a clinical depression.
  • A sore back is turned into a nasty lumbago.
  • A tummy upset morphs into a dangerous gastritis.
  • Abdominal unrest is diagnosed to be a leaky gut syndrome.
  • A food aversion turns into a food intolerance, etc., etc.

The common denominator is again the fact that fear is instilled into the patient. And again, a useless therapy is administered, if at all possible in the form of a lengthy series of treatments. This, of course, generates significant benefit – not therapeutic, but financial!


But there is always the risk that the patient is wiser than expected. She might be so scared learning of her condition that she decides to see her doctor. That would mean a loss of income which has to be avoided! The trick to achieve this is usually not difficult: conventional healthcare professionals must be demonized.

  • They are not treating the root cause of the problem.
  • They are in the pocket of BIG PHARMA.
  • They prescribe medicines with terrible side-effects.
  • They have no idea about holism.
  • They never have enough time to listen, etc., etc.

I know, some of these criticisms are not entirely incorrect (for instance, many conventional medicines do have serious side-effects but, as I try to point out ad nauseam, we need to consider their risk/benefit balance). But that is hardly the point here; the point is to scare the patient off conventional medicine. Only a person who is convinced that the ‘medical mafia’ is out to get her, will prove to be a loyal customer of all things alternative.


And a loyal customer is someone who comes not just once or twice but regularly, ideally from cradle to grave. The way to achieve this ultimate stimulus of the practitioners cash flow is to convince the patient that she needs regular treatments, even when she feels perfectly alright. The magic word here is PREVENTION! The masters here are the chiropractors, I guess; they promote what they call ‘maintenance care’, i.e. the regular treatment of healthy individuals to keep their spines subluxation-free. It goes without saying that maintenance care is a money-making scam.

The strategy requires two little lies, but that’s forgivable considering the good cause, boosting the income of the practitioner:

  1. Conventional doctors don’t do prevention.
  2. The alternative treatment is an effective preventative.

The first statement can be shown to be an obvious lie. All we know about effective disease prevention today comes from conventional medicine and science; nothing originates from the realm of alternative medicine. Remarkably, the most efficacious preventative measure of all times, immunisation, is frequently defamed and neglected by alternative practitioners.

The second statement is a necessary lie; how else would a patient agree to pay regularly for the practitioner’s services? I am not aware of any alternative therapy that can effectively prevent any disease.


  • Some alternative practitioners regularly instil fear into consumers.
  • Several strategies are being used for this purpose.
  • They have the aim of maximising the therapists’ income.
  • Fear-mongering is unethical and despicable.
  • Pointing out that a certain therapy might fail to generate more good than harm is not fear-mongering.

Before starting to treat a patient, all health care professionals – including of course alternative practitioners – have to obtain informed consent. This is not optional but an ethical and legal imperative. Informed consent must usually include full information on:

  • the diagnosis
  • its natural history
  • the most effective treatment options available
  • the proposed therapy
  • its effectiveness
  • its risks
  • its cost
  • a rough treatment plan

Only when this information has been transmitted to and understood by the patient can informed consent be considered complete.

One could easily argue that, in alternative medicine, informed consent is a practical impossibility.

To explain why, let us consider two scenarios.


A patient with fatigue and headaches consults a Reiki healer. The practitioner asks a few questions and proceeds to apply Reiki. The therapist has no means to obtain informed consent because:

  • he is not qualified to make diagnoses
  • he knows little about the natural condition of the patient
  • he is ignorant of the most effective treatment options
  • he is convinced that Reiki works but is unaware of the evidence


A patient with fatigue and headaches consults a chiropractor. The chiropractor takes a history, conducts a physical examination, tells the patient that her headaches are due to spinal misalignments which he suggests to treat with spinal manipulations, and proceeds to apply his treatments. The chiropractor has no means to obtain informed consent because:

  • he has insufficient knowledge of other therapeutic options
  • he is biased as to the effectiveness of spinal manipulations
  • he believes that they are risk-free
  • he has an overt conflict of interest (he earns his money by applying his treatments)

In some respects, these might be extreme scenarios. They were chosen to explain why informed consent is rarely possible in the realm of alternative medicine. Put simply, informed consent requires knowledge that alternative practitioners almost never possess. I know this will sound chauvinistic, but it requires knowledge that normally only doctors have – I mean doctors who have been through medical school. Moreover, it requires a lack of financial interest such that the clinician is not in danger of loosing out on some income, if he advises his patient not to receive treatment from him. Finally, informed consent requires information about the treatment. Arguably, this should include explanations how it works. For many alternative therapies, this information is not available. If it is unavailable, informed consent is impossible.

If I am correct – and I am fully aware that many will think I am not – what implications would this have? If informed consent is usually not provided or even impossible, one cannot help but conclude that alternative medicine, as it is practised in most places today, is not ethical.

In my previous post, I mentioned the current volume of the ‘Allgemeinen Homöopathischen Zeitung’ which contains the abstracts of the ‘Homeopathic World Congress 2017’ (btw: the remarkable opening speech for the WORLD CONFERENCE ON HOMEOPATHY 1937, in Berlin might also be of interest; excerpts from it can be found here). Amongst these abstracts, the collector can find many true gems. Today I have for you a few more abstracts that I found remarkable; they are from what I call pre-clinical (or non-clinical) research.

Homeopathy has a polarized image. Many people experience homeopathic cure, but critics say this is only a placebo-effect. However, there, are 3800 studies and evidence is steadily growing. All comprehensive investigations prove that homeopathy is more efficient than placebo. What are the reasons for this controversy? How do we improve the image of homeopathy? Methods Data collection regarding effectiveness, benefits and mechanisms over 30 years. Order development to archive all data according to their scientific content. Systematic analysis of criticisms towards homeopathy over the last 12 years. Discussions with sceptics to understand their rejections. Findings Main reasons for controversy are: ▪ Since homeopathy does not meet the contemporary scientific concepts, people believe that homeopathy is implausible. ▪ Different homeopathic methods appear contradictory. ▪ Conventional medicine rejects homeopathy.  Missing overview regarding scientific principles. ▪ Modern studies are no more understandable. Due to our fast-moving times, people quickly form opinion with their own personal logic, influenced by media information. This causes a systematic interpretation bias. Results The knowledge of homeopathy and potentized remedies will be publicly illustrated: ▪ Information about different methods. ▪ Basics of holistic thinking and limitations of science in medicine. ▪ State of the art regarding effectiveness and benefits. ▪ Scientific principles and body of evidence. ▪ Correcting wrong media information. A special didactic structure was developed to provide this information at the portal: “Homeopathy & potentized medicines” (, available autumn 2016). Physicians and patients will find comprehensible information to aquire a plausible picture of homeopathy.

The use of agrochemicals has been associated with environmental and ecological damages. Excessive use of fertilizers, for example, can lead to the groundwater contamination with nitrate, rendering it unfit for consumption by humans or livestock. Water containing large concentrations of nitrate can poison animals by partial immobilization of the hemoglobin in blood, reducing the ability to transport oxygen. These and other environmental effects in the use of agrochemicals are unfortunate consequences in the application of these chemical tools. Researchers are constantly searching for non-chemical solutions in dealing with many of these agricultural needs. Much attention is being paid, for example, to developing “organic” methods of enhancing soil fertility and dealing with pests. The application of homeopathy in agriculture (agrohomeopathy) is an alternative that can help solve the problems caused by agrochemicals. Several countries have begun to implement this new option to solve the problems that have been caused by agrochemicals. The use of agrohomeopathy allows a control of diseases in plants, caused by bacteria, fungi, viruses and pests, it also helps to improve and promote seed germination, as well as by enhancing the growth of plants. Moreover, with the application of agrohomeopathy it is possible to decontaminate soils that have been exposed to agrochemical treatments. The goal of this study is to analyze the major results obtained in agrohomeopathy. Also we demonstrate the importance of botanical models to find out or clarify the mechanism of homeopathy in living organisms.

Dr. Hahnemann improvised homeopathy to such an extent, that his discovery of potentization of homeopathic medicines questioned the fundamental belief systems of the basic sciences. This resulted in a constant disapproval of homeopathic system by the main stream science and was accused as a placebo therapy, yet the clinical efficacy of homeopathy remained unquestionable. Objectives The present study was done to analyze the presence/absence of particles in aurum metallicum 6C to CM and carbo vegetabilis 6C to CM potencies. This is a part of the 31 homeopathic drugs studied by using HRTEM&EDS and FESEM&EDS in Centesimal scale 6C, 30, 200, 1M, 10M, 50M and CM and LM scale in LM1, LM6, LM12, LM18, LM24 and LM30 potencies. Method HRTEM (High Resolution Transmission Electron Microscope), FESEM (Field Emission Scanning Electron Microscope) and EDS (Energy dispersive Spectroscopy) were used for the analysis of samples. Results Plenty of particles in nanometer and Quantum Dots (QD – less than 10nm) scale were seen in aur. with presence of gold in all the potencies of aur. Enormous particles were identified in all the potencies of carb-v. in nanometer scale composed of carbon and oxygen. Conclusion The presence of NPs & QDs in all potencies must be the reason for the cure in diseases and also produce signs and symptoms in Hahnemannian drug proving. This discovery of NPS in all the drug potencies is an important evidence which substantiate the individualized drug selection and place homeopathy an established “individualized nanomedicine” with 200 years of collective clinical experience.

In March 2015, the Australian National Health and Medical Research Council (NHMRC) published an Information Paper on homeopathy. This document, designed for the general public, provides a summary of the findings of a review of systematic reviews, carried out by NHMRC to assess the evidence base for effectiveness of homeopathy in humans. ’The Australian report’, concludes that ”there are no health conditions for which there is reliable evidence that homeopathy is effective … no goodquality, well-designed studies with enough participants for a meaningful result reported either that homeopathy caused greater health improvements than placebo, or caused health improvements equal to those of another treatment”. Such overly-definitive negative conclusions are immediately surprising, being inconsistent with the majority of comprehensive systematic reviews on homeopathy. In-depth analysis has revealed the report’s multiple methodological flaws, which explain this inconsistency. Most crucially, NHMRC’s findings hinge primarily on their definition of reliable evidence: for a trial to be deemed ’reliable’ it had to have at least 150 participants and a quality score of 5/5 on the Jadad scale (or equivalent on other scales). Trials that failed to meet either of these criteria were dismissed as being of ’insufficient quality and/or size to warrant further consideration of their findings’. Setting such a high quality threshold is highly unusual, but the n=150 minimum sample size criterion is arbitrary, without scientific justification, and unprecedented in evidence reviews. Out of 176 trials NHMRC included in the homeopathy review, only 5 trials met their definition of ’reliable’, none of which, according to their analysis, demonstrated effectiveness of homeopathy. This explains why NHMRC concluded there is ’no reliable evidence’ that homeopathy is effective. A distillation of other detailed findings, presented at conference, reveals further significant flaws in this highly influential report, providing critical awareness of its misrepresentation of the homeopathy evidence base.

An extensive review of the literature dealing on the results obtained by homeopathy during epidemics has revealed important findings about the efficacy of homeopathic treatment. The main findings of this research are: ▪ With more than 25,000 volumes, the homeopathic literature is vast and rich in reports about results obtained by homeopathy during epidemics. The speaker has uncovered over 7,000 references addressing this subject. ▪ Results obtained by homeopathy during epidemics reveal a very important and clear constancy: a very low mortality rate. This constancy remains, regardless of the physician, time, place or type of epidemical disease, including diseases carrying a very high mortality rate, such as cholera, smallpox, diphtheria, typhoid fever, yellow fever and pneumonia. ▪ Interestingly, this low mortality rate is always superior to the results obtained not only by allopathy practiced at that particular time but, as a rule, by allopathy of today, despite benefiting from modern nursing and hygienic care. ▪ Even the lesser-trained homeopaths obtained, as a rule, better results than the highest authorities of the allopathic school. However, the most consistent, predictable and impressive results were obtained by the ones who practiced genuine homeopathy whom are known as Hahnemannians. ▪ Homeopathic remedies have been successfully used to protect large segments of the population from upcoming infectious diseases. Homeopathic prophylaxis is safe and effective combining inexpensive costs. ▪ The results obtained by homeopathy during epidemics cannot be explained by the placebo effect.

It is often considered that a physico-chemical explanation of homeopathy would require a major rewriting of much of physics, chemistry and biochemistry. Yet, despite the fact that the bio-activity of homeopathic dilutions appears to fly in the face of modern science, such an upheaval might not actually be necessary. The aim of this presentation is to demonstrate that we can indeed formulate a plausible and testable theory of homeopathy based on current physics and chemistry. We will start by going over the requirements made of an explanation of homeopathy, such as: memory of the starting substance, compatibility with the dilution/succussion process and finally bio-activity. We will then formulate a minimal set of physical assumptions able to explain the experimental results found in homeopathy. We will show how these assumptions are validated both from the theoretical physics and experimental physico-chemistry side. On the one hand we have, the theoretical predictions of Preparata and DelGuidice of the existence in water structures. These predict the formation of distinct water domains through the stabilising effect of electromagnetic oscillations. On the other hand, we will present a set of experiments from within and outside the field of homeopathy (Demangeat, Elia, Pollack and others). These experiments support the idea that water does form relatively stable structures under certain conditions and that these structures have electromagnetic properties, which could be at the root of the specific biological effects seen in clinical and animal studies. Thus we will show that it is possible to formulate a plausible physico-chemical explanation of homeopathy based on current physic and chemistry. Crucially this formulation is testable, providing important parameters and suggestions for the design of future experiments.

Hilarious, isn’t it? There are many sentences that are memorable treasures in these abstracts. One is almost tempted to book a ticket to Leipzig and listen to the presentations. I particularly love the following statements:

  • All comprehensive investigations prove that homeopathy is more efficient than placebo…
  • …the clinical efficacy of homeopathy remained unquestionable…
  • …overly-definitive negative conclusions are immediately surprising…
  • Homeopathic prophylaxis is safe and effective…
  • …we can indeed formulate a plausible and testable theory of homeopathy based on current physics and chemistry…

The naivety, ignorance and chutzpa that we observed in the abstracts of clinical studies is mirrored here very clearly.  I am therefore inclined to repeat the questions I asked in part 1 of this post: How can a scientific committee reviewing these abstracts let them pass and allow the material to be presented at the ‘World Congress’? How can a Health Secretary accept the patronage of such a farce?

The current volume of the ‘Allgemeinen Homöopathischen Zeitung’ contains all the abstracts of the ‘Homeopathic World Congress 2017’ which will be hosted in Leipzig, 14-17 July this year by the ‘Deutschen Zentralvereins Homöopathischer Ärzte’ under the patronage of the German Health Secretary, Annette Widmann-Mauz. As not many readers of this blog are likely to be regular readers of this important journal, I have copied six of the more amusing abstracts below:

A male patient with bilateral solid renal mass was investigated and given an individualized homeopathic remedy. Antimonium crudum in 50000 potency was selected after proper case taking and evaluation. Investigations were done before and after treatment. Follow ups took place monthly. Results The patient had symptomatic relief from pain in flanks, acute retention and hematuria. The ultrasonography suggests a reduction in size of both lesions over a period of two years. A small number of lymph nodes of the para-aortic group are still visible. There is a normal level of urea and creatinine, no anemia or hypertention. The patient is surviving since 2014. Conclusion In the present day when malignancies are treated with surgeries, chemo and radiotherapies, homeopathy has a significant role to play as seen in the above case. This case with bilateral solid renal mass, probably a renal cell carcinoma, received an individualized homeopathic remedy-treatment compliant with the totality of symptoms, and permitted the patient to live longer without anemia, hypertension, anorexia or weight loss. The quality of life was maintained without the side effects of surgery, radiotherapy and chemotherapy. Acute retentions, which he used to suffer also remained absent, thereafter. The result of this case suggests to take up further studies on individualized homeopathic treatment in malignant diseases.

Urinary tract infections (UTI) are often a complaint in the homeopathic practice, mainly as uncomplicated infections in the form of a one time event. Some patients, however, have a tendency to develop recurrent or complicated urinary tract infections. Methods It is shown on the basis of case documentation that UTI should be treated homeopathic, variably. The issue of prophylaxis will be discussed. Results If there is a tendency to complicated UTI, chronic treatment after case taking of the symptom-totality of the affected must take place during a free interval. In contrast, the chronically recurring and flaming up of UTI, as well as the uniquely occurring of uncomplicated UTI, are handled as an acute illness. The treatment is based on the striking, characteristic symptoms of the infected. Conclusion The homeopathic treatment of UTI in the acute case of uncomplicated forms is usually very successful, The chronic treatment of complicated UTI shows certain difficulties. A safe homeopathic prophylaxis, in terms of conventional medicine, is problematical.

The homeopathic clinic of the Municipal Public Servant Hospital of São Paulo (HSPM – Brazil) has among patient records some cases of thyroid gland diseases (hypothyroidism or hyperthyroidism), which were treated whith the systemic homeopathic method of Carillo. This study evaluates patients with diseases of thyroid gland, analyzing improvements using a Iodium-like equalizer, adjacent to the systemic medication. The reviewed 21 cases using Iodium equalizer for the disease, adjacent to the systemic medication, in the homeopathic clinic of the HSPM, from 2000 to 2013. In four cases, it was possible to reduce the dose of allopathic medicine and finally terminate it due to normalization of the thyroid gland function. There was one case of hyperthyroidism and it was possible to terminate the use of methimazole. There were four cases, in which the function of the thyroid gland was normalized without the associated use of hormone. In three cases it was possible to reduce the dose of hormone. There were nine cases, in which it was not possible to reduce the dose of the hormone. In cases where there was an improvement applying homeopathic treatment, TSH and free T4 returned to the normal reference value. In cases that were not effective, TSH and free T4 had not normalized. Therefore, the effectiveness of Iodium depends on the ability and stability of the gland thyroid to increase or decrease hormone production, in addition to the treatment of a chronic disease, that affects the thyroid gland.

Cystitis composes infections in the urinary system, especially bladder and urethra. It has multiple causes, but the most common is infection due to microorganisms such as E. coli, streptococcus, staphylococcus etc. If the system is attacked by pathogenetic agents, the defense must include more powerful noxious agents which can fight and destroy the attacking organisms, here is the role of nosodes. Nosodes are the potentised remedies made up from dangerous noxious materials. The use of nosodes in cystitis is based on the aphorism 26– Therapeutic Law of Nature: A weaker one is always distinguished by the stronger one! Colibacillinum, streptococcinum, staphylococcinum, lyssinum, medorrhinum, psorinum and tuberculinum are useful in handling cystitis relating to the organism involved [as found in urine test] and symptom similarity. Method An observational prospective study on a group of 30 people proves the immediate, stronger defensive action of nosodes. Result Amazing! Nosodes given in low potency provided instant relief to patients. Repetition of the same, over several months offered immunity for further attacks of cystitis, as Hering had already testified nosodes have prophylactic action. Conclusion According to law of similia – as per the pathology, as per the defense! By inducing a strong artificial disease, homeopathy can eliminate the natural disease from the body. Usually nosodes are used as intercurrent drugs which play the role of catalysts, on the journey to recovery, but they are also very effective in cystitis as an acute remedy. Acute cystitis is a very troublesome state for the patients, to cure it homeopathy has an arsenal of nosodes.

In 1991, no antiretroviral therapy (ART) treatment was available. The Central Council for Research in Homeopathy had established a clinical research unit at Mumbai for undertaking investigations in HIV/AIDS. So far 2502 cases have been enrolled for homeopathic treatment and three studies have been published since then. In this paper we will highlight the impact of long term homeopathic management of cases, which have been followed up for more than 15 years. Method The HIV positive cases enrolled in different studies are continuously being managed in this unit and even after study conclusion. All the cases are being treated solely with individualised homeopathy. The cases are assessed clinically (body weight, opportunistic infections, etc.) as well as in respect to CD4 counts and CD4/CD8 ratio. Results The CD4 count was maintained in all patients, except in one case. Three patients had the CD4 level in the range of 500–1200, four in the range of 300–500, one had a 272 CD4 count. There has been a decline of CD4/ CD8 ratio since baseline, but the patients have maintained their body weights and remained free from major HIV related illnesses and opportunistic infections. The frequently indicated remedies were pulsatilla pratensis, lycopodium clavatum, nux vomica,tuberculinum bovinum, natrum muriaticum, rhus toxicodendron, medorrhinum, arsenicum album, mercurius solubilis, thuja occidentalis, nitic acid, sulphur, bryonia alba and hepar sulph. Conclusion In the emergent scenario of drug resistance and adverse reactions of ART in HIV infections, there may be a possibility of employing homeopathy as an adjuvant therapy to existing standard ART treatment. Further studies are desirable.

In the last 20 years we have treated in the Clinica St. Croce many patients with cancer. We often deal with palliative states and we aim at pain relief and improvement of life-quality, and if possible a prolongation of life. Is this possible by prescribing a homeopathic therapy? Methodology The exact application and the knowledge of the responses to the Q-potencies often give indications for the correct choice of remedy. Acute conditions of pain often need a more frequent repetition of the C-potencies needed for pain relief. Results Even with severe pain or in so-called final stages homeopathy can offer great assistance. On the basis of case reports from Clinica St. Croce, the procedure for the homeopathic treatment of cancer, and the treatment of pain and final states will be illustrated and clarified. In addition, some clinically proven homeopathic remedies will be presented for the optimal palliation in the treatment of end-states and accompanying the dying. Conclusions With the precise application and knowledge of the responses to the Q- and C-potencies, the homeopathic doctor is given a wonderful helper to treat even the most serious palliative states and can accomplish, sometimes, a miraculous healing.


These abstracts are truly hilarious and show how totally unaware some homeopaths are of the scientific method. I say ‘some’, but perhaps it is most or even all? How can a scientific committee reviewing these abstracts let them pass and allow the material to be presented at the ‘World Congress’? How can a Health Secretary accept the patronage of such a farce?

These abstracts are therefore not just hilarious but also truly depressing. If we had needed proof that homeopathy has no place in real healthcare of today, these abstracts would go a long way in providing it. To realise that politicians, physicians, patients, consumers, journalists etc. take such infantile nonsense seriously is not just depressing but at the same time worrying, I find.

The fact that some alternative medicine (the authors use the abbreviation ‘CAM’) practitioners recommend against vaccination is well-known and often-documented. Specifically implicated are:

As a result, children consulting homeopaths, naturopaths or chiropractors are less likely to receive vaccines and more likely to get vaccine-preventable diseases. These effects have been noted for several childhood infections but little is known about how child CAM-usage affects influenza vaccination.

A new nationally representative study fills this gap; it analysed ∼9000 children from the Child Complementary and Alternative Medicine File of the 2012 National Health Interview Survey. Adjusting for health services use factors, it examined influenza vaccination odds by ever using major CAM domains: (1) alternative medical systems (AMS; eg, acupuncture); (2) biologically-based therapies, excluding multivitamins/multi-minerals (eg, herbal supplements); (3) multi-vitamins/multi-minerals; (4) manipulative and body-based therapies (MBBT; eg, chiropractic manipulation); and (5) mind-body therapies (eg, yoga).

Influenza vaccination uptake was lower among children ever (versus never) using AMS (33% vs 43%; P = .008) or MBBT (35% vs 43%; P = .002) but higher by using multivitamins/multiminerals (45% vs 39%; P < .001). In multivariate analyses, multivitamin/multimineral use lost significance, but children ever (versus never) using any AMS or MBBT had lower uptake (respective odds ratios: 0.61 [95% confidence interval: 0.44-0.85]; and 0.74 [0.58-0.94]).

The authors concluded that children who have ever used certain CAM domains that may require contact with vaccine-hesitant CAM practitioners are vulnerable to lower annual uptake of influenza vaccination. Opportunity exists for US public health, policy, and medical professionals to improve child health by better engaging parents of children using particular domains of CAM and CAM practitioners advising them.

There is hardly any need to point out that CAM-use is associated with low vaccination-uptake. We have discussed this on my blog ad nauseam – see for instance here, here, here and here. Too many CAM practitioners have an irrational view of vaccinations and advise against their patients against them. Anyone who needs more information might find it right here by searching this blog. Anyone claiming that this is all my exaggeration might look at these papers, for instance, which have nothing to do with me (there are plenty more for those who are willing to conduct a Medline search):

  • Lehrke P, Nuebling M, Hofmann F, Stoessel U. Attitudes of homeopathic physicians towards vaccination. Vaccine. 2001;19:4859–4864. doi: 10.1016/S0264-410X(01)00180-3. [PubMed]
  • Halper J, Berger LR. Naturopaths and childhood immunizations: Heterodoxy among the unorthodox. Pediatrics. 1981;68:407–410. [PubMed]
  • Colley F, Haas M. Attitudes on immunization: A survey of American chiropractors. Journal of Manipulative and Physiological Therapeutics. 1994;17:584–590. [PubMed]

One could, of course, argue about the value of influenza vaccination for kids, but the more important point is that CAM practitioners tend to be against ANY immunisation. And the even bigger point is that many of them issue advice that is against conventional treatments of proven efficacy.

In a previous post I asked the question ‘Alternative medicine for kids: when is it child-abuse?’ I think that evidence like the one reported here renders this question all the more acute.

A recent post discussed a ‘STATE OF THE ART REVIEW’ from the BMJ. When I wrote it, I did not know that there was more to come. It seems that the BMJ is planning an entire series on the state of the art of BS! The new paper certainly looks like it:

Headaches, including primary headaches such as migraine and tension-type headache, are a common clinical problem. Complementary and integrative medicine (CIM), formerly known as complementary and alternative medicine (CAM), uses evidence informed modalities to assist in the health and healing of patients. CIM commonly includes the use of nutrition, movement practices, manual therapy, traditional Chinese medicine, and mind-body strategies. This review summarizes the literature on the use of CIM for primary headache and is based on five meta-analyses, seven systematic reviews, and 34 randomized controlled trials (RCTs). The overall quality of the evidence for CIM in headache management is generally low and occasionally moderate. Available evidence suggests that traditional Chinese medicine including acupuncture, massage, yoga, biofeedback, and meditation have a positive effect on migraine and tension headaches. Spinal manipulation, chiropractic care, some supplements and botanicals, diet alteration, and hydrotherapy may also be beneficial in migraine headache. CIM has not been studied or it is not effective for cluster headache. Further research is needed to determine the most effective role for CIM in patients with headache.

My BS-detector struggled with the following statements:

  • integrative medicine (CIM), formerly known as complementary and alternative medicine (CAM) – the fact that CIM is a nonsensical new term has been already mentioned in the previous post;
  • evidence informed modalities – another new term! evidence-BASED would be too much? because it would require using standards that do not apply to CIM? double standards promoted by the BMJ, what next?
  • CIM commonly includes the use of nutrition – yes, so does any healthcare or indeed life!
  • the overall quality of the evidence for CIM in headache management is generally low and occasionally moderate – in this case, no conclusions should be drawn from it (see below);
  • evidence suggests that traditional Chinese medicine including acupuncture, massage, yoga, biofeedback, and meditation have a positive effect on migraine and tension headaches – no, it doesn’t (see above)!
  • further research is needed to determine the most effective role for CIM in patients with headache – this sentence does not even make the slightest sense to me; have the reviewers of this article been asleep?

And this is just the abstract!

The full text provides enough BS to fertilise many acres of farmland!

Moreover, the article is badly researched, cherry-picked, poorly constructed, devoid of critical input, and poorly written. Is there anything good about it? You tell me – I did not find much!

My BS-detector finally broke when we came to the conclusions:

The use of CIM therapies has the potential to empower patients and help them take an active role in their care. Many CIM modalities, including mind-body therapies, are both self selected and self administered after an education period. This, coupled with patients’ increased desire to incorporate integrative medicine, should prompt healthcare providers to consider and discuss its inclusion in the overall management strategy. Low to moderate quality evidence exists for the effectiveness of some CIM therapies in the management of primary headache. The evidence for and use of CIM is continuously changing so healthcare professionals should direct their patients to reliable and updated resources, such as NCCIH.



The website of BMJ Clinical Evidence seems to be popular with fans of alternative medicine (FAMs). That sounds like good news: it’s an excellent source, and one can learn a lot about EBM when studying it. But there is a problem: FAMs don’t seem to really study it (alternatively they do not have the power of comprehension to understand the data); they merely pounce on this figure and cite it endlessly:

They interpret it to mean that only 11% of what conventional clinicians do is based on sound evidence. This is water on their mills, because now they feel able to claim:


The question is: are these FAMs correct?

The answer is: no!

They are merely using a logical fallacy (tu quoque); what is worse, they use it based on misunderstanding the actual data summarised in the above figure.

Let’s look at this in a little more detail.

The first thing we need to understand the methodologies used by ‘Clinical Evidence’ and what the different categories in the graph mean. Here is the explanation:

So, arguably the top three categories amounting to 42% signify some evidential support (if we decided to be more rigorous and merely included the two top categories, we would still arrive at 35%). This is not great, but we must remember two things here:

  • EBM is fairly new;
  • lots of people are working hard to improve the evidence base of medicine so that, in future, these figures will be better (by contrast, in alternative medicine, no similar progress is noticeable).

The second thing that strikes me is that, in alternative medicine, these figures would surely be much, much worse. I am not aware of reliable estimates, but I guess that the percentages might be one dimension smaller.

The third thing to mention is that the figures do not cover the entire spectrum of treatments available today but are based on ~ 3000 selected therapies. It is unclear how they were chosen, presumably the choice is pragmatic and based on the information available. If an up-to date systematic review has been published and provided the necessary information, the therapy was included. This means that the figures include not just mainstream but also plenty of alternative treatments (to the best of my knowledge ‘Clinical Evidence’ makes no distinction between the two). It is thus nonsensical to claim that the data highlight the weakness of the evidence in conventional medicine. It is even possible that the figures would be better, if alternative treatments had been excluded (I estimate that around 2 000 systematic reviews of alternative therapies have been published [I am the author of ~400 of them!]).

The fourth and possibly the most important thing to mention is that the percentage figures in the graph are certainly NOT a reflection of what percentage of treatments used in routine care are based on good evidence. In conventional practice, clinicians would, of course, select where possible those treatments with the best evidence base, while leaving the less well documented ones aside. In other words, they will use the ones in the two top categories much more frequently than those from the other categories.

At this stage, I hear some FAMs say: how does he know that?

Because several studies have been published that investigated this issue in some detail. They have monitored what percentage of interventions used by conventional clinicians in their daily practice are based on good evidence. In 2004, I reviewed these studies; here is the crucial passage from my paper:

“The most conclusive answer comes from a UK survey by Gill et al who retrospectively reviewed 122 consecutive general practice consultations. They found that 81% of the prescribed treatments were based on evidence and 30% were based on randomised controlled trials (RCTs). A similar study conducted in a UK university hospital outpatient department of general medicine arrived at comparable figures; 82% of the interventions were based on evidence, 53% on RCTs. Other relevant data originate from abroad. In Sweden, 84% of internal medicine interventions were based on evidence and 50% on RCTs. In Spain these percentages were 55 and 38%, respectively. Imrie and Ramey pooled a total of 15 studies across all medical disciplines, and found that, on average, 76% of medical treatments are supported by some form of compelling evidence — the lowest was that mentioned above (55%),6 and the highest (97%) was achieved in anaesthesia in Britain. Collectively these data suggest that, in terms of evidence-base, general practice is much better than its reputation.”

My conclusions from all this:

FAMs should study the BMJ Clinical Evidence more thoroughly. If they did, they might comprehend that the claims they tend to make about the data shown there are, in fact, bogus. In addition, they might even learn a thing or two about EBM which might eventually improve the quality of the debate.

The new guidelines by the American College of Physicians entitled ‘Noninvasive Treatments for Acute, Subacute, and Chronic Low Back Pain: A Clinical Practice Guideline From the American College of Physicians’ have already been the subject of the previous post. Today, I want to have a closer look at a small section of these guidelines which, I think, is crucial. It is entitled ‘HARMS OF NONPHARMACOLOGIC THERAPIES’. I have taken the liberty of copying it below:

“Evidence on adverse events from the included RCTs and systematic reviews was limited, and the quality of evidence for all available harms data is low. Harms were poorly reported (if they were reported at all) for most of the interventions.

Low-quality evidence showed no reported harms or serious adverse events associated with tai chi, psychological interventions, multidisciplinary rehabilitation, ultrasound, acupuncture, lumbar support, or traction (9,95,150,170–174). Low-quality evidence showed that when harms were reported for exercise, they were often related to muscle soreness and increased pain, and no serious harms were reported. All reported harms associated with yoga were mild to moderate (119). Low-quality evidence showed that none of the RCTs reported any serious adverse events with massage, although 2 RCTs reported soreness during or after massage therapy (175,176). Adverse events associated with spinal manipulation included muscle soreness or transient increases in pain (134). There were few adverse events reported and no clear differences between MCE and controls. Transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulation was associated with an increased risk for skin site reaction but not serious adverse events (177). Two RCTs (178,179) showed an increased risk for skin flushing with heat compared with no heat or placebo, and no serious adverse events were reported. There were no data on cold therapy. Evidence was insufficient to determine harms of electrical muscle stimulation, LLLT, percutaneous electrical nerve stimulation, interferential therapy, short-wave diathermy, and taping.”

The first thing that strikes me is the brevity of the section. Surely, guidelines of this nature must include a full discussion of the risks of the treatments in question!

The second thing that is noteworthy is the fact that the authors confirm the fact I have been banging on about for years: clinical trials of alternative therapies far too often fail to mention adverse effects.  I have often pointed out that the failure to report adverse effects in clinical trials is an unacceptable violation of medical ethics. By contrast, the guideline authors seem not to feel strongly about this omission.

The third thing that is noteworthy is that the guidelines evaluate the harms of the treatments purely on the basis of the adverse effects reported in the clinical trials and systematic reviews included in their efficacy assessments. This is nonsensical for at least two reasons:

  1. The guideline authors themselves are aware that the trials very often fail to mention adverse effects.
  2. For any assessment of harm, one has to go far beyond the evidence of clinical trials, because trials tend to be too small to pick up rare adverse effects, and because they are always conducted under optimally controlled conditions where adverse effects are less likely to occur than in real life.

Together, these features of the assessment of harms explain why the guideline authors arrive at conclusions which are oddly misguided; I would even feel that they resemble a white-wash. Here are two of the most overt misjudgements:

  • no harms associated with acupuncture,
  • only trivial harm associated with spinal manipulations.

The best evidence we have today shows that acupuncture leads to mild adverse effects in about 10% of all cases and is also associated with very severe complications (e.g. pneumothorax, cardiac tamponade, infections, deaths) in an unknown number of patients. More details can be found for instance here, here, here and here.

And the best evidence available shows that spinal manipulation leads to moderately severe adverse effects in ~50% of all cases. In addition, we know of hundreds of cases of very severe complications resulting in stroke, permanent neurological deficits or deaths. More details can be found for instance here, here, here and here.

In the introduction, I stated that this small section of the guidelines is crucial.


The reason is simple: any responsible therapeutic decision has to be based not just on the efficacy of the treatment in question but on its risk/benefit balance. The evidence shows that the risks of some alternative therapies can be considerable, a fact that is almost totally neglected in the guidelines. Therefore, the recommendations of the new guidelines by the American College of Physicians entitled ‘Noninvasive Treatments for Acute, Subacute, and Chronic Low Back Pain: A Clinical Practice Guideline From the American College of Physicians’ are in several aspects not entirely correct and need to be reconsidered.

Concerned about the new ACP guidelines on ‘Noninvasive Treatments for Acute, Subacute, and Chronic Low Back Pain: A Clinical Practice Guideline From the American College of Physicians’, Andrea MacGregor asked me to publish her ‘open letter’:

I am a student about to graduate and register as a massage therapist in Canada, and I am writing to express my concern with your recommendation of the use of acupuncture in your new guideline for low-back pain management.

Leading medical and health research experts from around the world, including many who are highly familiar with the use of complementary and alternative therapies, have contributed to a highly informed commentary (attached) assembled by the Friends of Science in Medicine association (Aus.), which supports a strong conclusion that acupuncture is not effective for any specific condition, and that the evidence for it being an effective intervention for low-back pain is not convincing. Another review of acupuncture by FSM concluding that there is a lack of evidence of a therapeutic effect has been endorsed by the Royal Australian and New Zealand College of Obstetricians and Gynaecologists. Respected American medical science writers also maintain that claims of acupuncture’s efficacy are not science-based (examples here and here).

Additionally, previous acupuncture recommendations are being reconsidered by prominent institutions in other parts of the world. The National Institute for Health and Care Excellence guideline for NHS patients in the United Kingdom now recommends against the use of acupuncture for low-back pain, following a high-quality review that critically examined the existing evidence regarding the use of acupuncture and found it to be no more effective than a placebo. The Toronto Hospital for Sick Children has also recently removed references on their website that suggested the efficacy of acupuncture in managing specific chronic pain conditions. The World Health Organization has done the same, no longer suggesting that acupuncture is effective for low-back pain and sciatica.

As someone about to enter a field that is frequently associated with, or considered a part of, complementary healthcare, I know how tempting it can be for us, as professionals and as researchers, to exaggerate claims of efficacy and pin some very high hopes on “new possibilities” in physical therapies.

I also know first-hand how misguided and overblown some of these claims and hopes can be. Many of my own peers and instructors are proponents of acupuncture, and it is common for Canadian massage therapists to become licensed acupuncturists (a similar connection between massage and acupuncture communities, of course, also exists in the United States). I have often seen my own mentors and comrades pushing for the use of acupuncture treatments for many chronic and serious conditions for which there is no basis of evidence at all of acupuncture’s efficacy, including systemic, neurological, and developmental conditions. When questioned, they will usually refer to authorities perceived as “legitimate”, including the American College of Physicians, to say that claims of acupuncture “working” are backed by experts— whether their claims are even pain-related or not.

We see a similar situation with advertisers and media using the guise of “expert-backed” legitimization to recommend acupuncture in misleading ways, often to vulnerable people who could be making better-informed and more effective treatment and management choices for their conditions. Many of these advertising and media entities specifically mention the American College of Physicians as lending credence to their claims, sometimes somewhat out of context.

As someone with a chronic neurological disorder, I find it troubling to see untrue or exaggerated claims of benefit for incurable or serious conditions when we could be focusing on more accurate ideas and having more honest, realistic discussions of our options. This is also important when it comes to deciding how to best allocate our limited health funding resources. Quite a lot of our insurance and out-of-pocket funds are spent on alternative therapies, and it’s important to see things going to use in a way that’s proportionate and appropriate to the evidence we have.

I hope that you will reconsider your recommendation of a practice that is simply not supported by the majority of the research evidence that exists to date. Patients with complex conditions, including low-back pain, deserve accurate and realistic information regarding their treatment options, especially from such trusted and reputable sources as the American College of Physicians. Thank you for your time and attention.


Andrea MacGregor

Below are informed conclusions on acupuncture from 28 international experts from 10 countries, including Australia, Canada, Denmark, France, Greece, Italy, Netherlands, New Zealand, United Kingdom and United States of America.

These include:

– Sir Richard John Roberts, English biochemist and molecular biologist, 1993 Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine  – Prof Nikolai Bogduk AM, Emeritus Professor of Pain Medicine, University of Newcastle, Australia – Prof Timothy Caulfield,  LLM, FRSC, FCAHS, Canada Research Chair in Health Law & Policy, Trudeau Fellow & Professor, Faculty of Law and School of Public Health, Research Director, Health Law Institute, University of Alberta, Canada – Prof. Assimakis Kanellopoulos, PhD MSc.Prof. Applied Physiotherapy, TEI Lamia, Greece – Prof Lesley Campbell AM, MBBS, FRACP FRCP(UK), Senior Endocrinologist, Diabetes Services, St Vincent’s Hospital, Professor of Medicine, UNSW. Laboratory Co-Head, Clinical Diabetes, Appetite and Metabolism, Garvan Institute of Medical Research, SVH, NSW, Australia – Emeritus Prof Donald M. Marcus, MD, Professor of Medicine and Immunology, Emeritus, Baylor College of Medicine, Houston, United States of America (USA) – Dr Michael Vagg, MBBS(Hons) FAFRM(RACP) FFPMANZCA, Consultant in Rehabilitation and Pain Medicine, Barwon Health. Clinical Senior Lecturer, Deakin University School of Medicine. Fellow, Institute for Science in Medicine, Victoria, Australia – Prof Bernie Garrett, The University of British Columbia, School of Nursing, Vancouver, BC, Canada – A/Prof David H Gorski, MD PhD FACS, surgical oncologist, Barbara Ann Karmanos Cancer Institute, Team Leader, Breast Cancer Multidisciplinary Team, Co-Leader, Breast Cancer Biology Program, Co-Director, Alexander J Walt Comprehensive Breast Center, Chief, Section of Breast Surgery, A/Professor, Surgery, Wayne State University School of Medicine, , and Professor (Honorary) Hanoi Medical University, USA – Prof Carl Bartecchi, MD, MACP, Distinguished Professor of Clinical Medicine, University of Colorado School of Medicine, USA – Prof David Colquhoun, FRS, Dept of Pharmacology, UCL United Kingdom (UK) – Prof Edzard Ernst, MD PhD FMEdSci FSB FRCP FRCP(Edin), Complementary Medicine, Peninsula Medical School, UK – Prof Marcello Costa FAAS. Matthew Flinders Distinguished Professor and Professor of Neurophysiology (2012), Professor of Neurophysiology, Flinders University, Australia. – Emeritus Prof Alastair H MacLennan AO MB CHb MD FRCOG FRANZCOG. The Robinson Research Institute, The University of Adelaide, Australia – Prof John M Dwyer AO PhD FRACP FRCPI Doc Uni(Hon) ACU. Emeritus Professor of Medicine, University of New South Wales. Founder of the Australian Health Care Reform Alliance. Clinical consultant to the NSW Government’s Inter-Agency committee on Health Care Fraud, Australia – A/Prof Steven M Novella, clinical neurologist Yale University School of Medicine, Connecticut,  USA – Prof William M London, EdD, MPH, Department of Public Health, California State University, Los Angeles, USA – Dr Steven Barrett, MD, retired psychiatrist, author, co-founder of the National Council Against Health Fraud (NCAHF), USA – Prof. Steven L. Salzberg, Ph.D., Bloomberg Distinguished Professor of Biomedical Engineering, Computer Science, and Biostatistics, Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, USA – Prof Christopher C French, Head of the Anomalistic Psychology Research Unit, Department of Psychology, Goldsmiths, University of London, UK – Dr Cees Renckens MD PhD, gynaecologist, past president of the Dutch Society against Quackery, Netherlands  – Dr Alain Braillon. MD PhD. Senior consultant. University hospital, France – Dr John McLennan, MBBS FRACP, Paediatrician, Vic – Prof Shaun Holt, BPharm(hons), MBChB(hons), Medical Researcher, Victoria University of Wellington, New Zealand – Dr Lloyd B Oppel, MD, MHSc, Canada – Professor Asbjørn Hróbjartsson, Centre for Evidence-Based Medicine, University of Southern Denmark & Odense University Hospital, Denmark – Prof Maurizio Pandolfi MD, Florence, former Professor of Clinical Ophthalmology, The University of Lund, Sweden, Italy – Professor Mark Baker, Centre for Clinical Practice Director, National Institute for Health and Care Excellence (NICE), UK

According to Sir Richard: “From everything I have read about acupuncture I have to conclude that the evidence for efficacy is just not there.  I can believe it has a very strong and effective placebo effect, but if it really worked as advertised why are the numbers of successful outcomes so small when compared to treatments such as drugs that really do work. As a scientist, who likes to see proper experiments carried out so that the results can be judged with a rational analysis, the experiments I have read about just don’t meet even a low bar of acceptability. I certainly do not believe it should be endorsed as an effective treatment by any professional scientific or medical body that values its reputation.”

According to Professor Bogduk: “Although studies have shown that acupuncture “works”, the definition of “works” is generous. Most studies show minimal to no effect greater than that of sham therapy. Needles do not need to be placed at specific points; so, learning about meridians is not required. Effectiveness is marginally greater in those patients who believe in acupuncture or expect it to work. However, no studies have shown that acupuncture stops pain, while also restoring normal function and removing the need for other health care.”

According to Professor Caulfield: “In popular culture, acupuncture is often portrayed as being effective for a range of conditions. It is held up as an alternative medicine success story. In fact, the relevant data are, at best, equivocal. The most rigorous studies, such as those that are well controlled and use sham comparators, have found that in most situations acupuncture is little better than placebo.  More importantly, the supernatural foundations of the practice – that illness can be attributed to an imbalance in a life force energy – has absolutely no scientific basis. Given this reality, public representations of acupuncture that present it as science-based and effective can be deeply misleading.  Policies are needed to counter this noise, including, inter alia, the more aggressive deployment of truth-in-advertising regulations, the enforcement of a conceptually consistent science-based informed consent standard, and the oversight of healthcare professionals by the relevant regulatory entities.”

According to Professor Kanellopoulos: “According to the systematic reviews in the field of acupuncture, the benefits of the method, if any, are nothing more than a temporary placebo effect. From a scientific point of view, acupuncture is based on a theory, which has nothing to do with modern physiology and medicine. From a researcher’s point of view, any presented acupuncture effectiveness is due to methodological errors, data manipulation, statistical artefacts and (purposely?) poorly designed clinical trials in general. Finally, regarding the patient, any symptom’s relief comes from despair and post hoc fallacy. After decades of research and over 3000 clinical trials, any continuation of practicing, advertising, and research in the field of acupuncture is a waste of resources and puts the patients at risk, raising ethical issues for both science and society.”

According to Professor Campbell: “Acupuncture holds great theatrical appeal through its dramatic and historical aspects, particularly to those who feel that conventional medicine has failed to offer pain relief or sufficient improvement in symptoms. However an extensive body of data now exists from rigorous approaches to testing the validity of its claims of benefit actually related to the placement of the needles and not to placebo effect. For example, most recently the beneficial effect achieved in relieving fatigue in Parkinsons Disease (and there was one) was identical in a randomised controlled trial to that of placebo.”

According to Professor Donald M. Marcus: “When trials of acupuncture for relief of pain of osteoarthritis of the knee or back pain include a sham acupuncture control, there is no clinically relevant difference in efficacy between the conventional and sham procedures. A number of sham procedures have been used, including toothpicks in a plastic guide tube in a study of back pain. It’s evident that relief of pain, and probably other complaints, by acupuncture is mediated by a placebo mechanism. Since there is no scientific evidence supporting its efficacy, medical insurance should not pay for acupuncture treatments. Moreover, it is unethical to deceive patients by providing a placebo treatment without disclosure.”

According to pain specialist Dr Vagg: “Due to the lack of a scientifically plausible mechanism, and the poor quality of the bulk of the research concerning acupuncture in its many and varied forms, no credible body of pain medicine researchers or clinicians has endorsed any type of acupuncture as a recommended treatment for any identifiable group of patients with persistent pain. Moreover, there is no reason to suppose that further research of high quality will change this conclusion, given that high-quality, randomized and double-blinded studies have uniformly shown that any form of acupuncture is indistinguishable from placebo, making further research unwarranted.”

According to Professor Garrett: “Current levels of evidence on acupuncture as a therapeutic intervention for any condition is very poor. Most studies reported  are of very poor quality and are not reliable. Unfortunately, there is a strong element of propaganda in the dissemination of support for acupuncture in China, as it is a part of the Traditional Chinese Medicine supported by the government there. As such, much research has been demonstrated to involve data fabrication and extreme levels of confirmation bias. There are also strong ethical concerns about research involving acupuncture in China for anesthesia or other conditions where there is no established clinical theoretical basis for its use, and far better established therapeutics are available. Overall the current state of evidence on acupuncture is that the effectiveness of acupuncture as a treatment of any health condition remains unproven, and the only good quality trials have identified it has no better outcomes than placebo. Therefore, any claims of efficacy made against specific medical conditions are deceptive.”

According to Professor Gorski: “Acupuncture seems to garner more belief because it seems more plausible. The reason is that, unlike many other alternative therapies, acupuncture actually involves a physical act, namely inserting needles into the skin. However, it is also the case that the more acupuncture has been studied, the more it has become clear that it is, as David Colquhoun and Steve Novella put it, nothing more than a theatrical placebo. Indeed, as acupuncture is more rigorously studied in randomized clinical trials with proper controls and proper blinding, the more its seeming effects disappear, so that it becomes indistinguishable from placebo. Nor is it without risk, either. Recommending acupuncture to treat any condition is, from an ethical and scientific view, indefensible.”

According to Professor Bartecchi: “Acupuncture has no medical value other than that of a placebo. Acupuncture as viewed by many of us in academic medicine is merely an elaborate, theatrical placebo, a pre-scientific superstition which lacks a plausible mechanism. It really fits the bill as an alternative medicine hoax.”

According to Professor Colquhoun: “After over 3000 trials, some of them very well designed, there is still argument about the effectiveness of acupuncture.  If that were the case for a new drug, it would long since have been abandoned. The literature suggests that acupuncture has only a small and variable placebo effect: too small to be of noticeable benefit to patients. Most of its apparent effects result from a statistical artefact, regression to the mean. The continued use of acupuncture probably arises from the lack of effective treatments for conditions like non-specific low back pain. That cannot be justified, Neither is it worth spending yet more money on further research. The research has been done and it failed to produce convincing evidence.”

According to Professor Ernst: “The current evidence on acupuncture is mixed. Many trials are less than rigorous and thus not reliable. Much of the research comes from China where data fabrication has been disclosed to be at epidemic levels; it would therefore be a mistake to rely on studies from China which almost invariably report positive results.  If we account for such caveats and critically review the literature, we arrive at the following conclusions: – Acupuncture is clearly not free of risks, some of which are serious;  – The effectiveness of acupuncture as a treatment of any condition remains unproven, and – The current research in this area is mostly pseudo-research aimed at promoting rather than testing acupuncture”.

According to Professor Costa: “Acupuncture as a part of Traditional Chinese Medicine is not based on science simply because, as for all pre-scientific medicines, whether Greco-Roman-European, Indian or any other, none are founded on any evidence. As a Neuroscientist, I teach medical and non medical students the very foundations of how the nervous system works and how sensory stimulation affects the brain. There simply is no evidence that twigging the skin with needles or, for that matter with toothpicks, does any more than create an expectation to feel better. This is the well-known placebo effect. Selling placebos under the disguise of medicine is totally unethical.”

According to Professor MacLennan: “Acupuncture is elaborate quackery and like many placebos sold by those without responsibility for or knowledge of the wide range of health disorders and disease it can be dangerous. Dangerous because acupuncture may delay correct diagnosis and therapy, dangerous because it may delay possible evidence-based therapies and allow progression of disorders present and dangerous because it sucks limited health resources from the community.   Acupuncturists derive their income from elaborate subterfuge, taking advantage of the gullible unwell who are desperate, uneducated and seek a magic cure. If there is a placebo effect it is usually temporary, and eventually disappointment from lack of long term effect may lead to secondary depression in the patient.    According to Professor Dwyer: “Modern understanding of human anatomy and the distribution and function of the components of the human nervous system make a nonsense of theories that suggest there are invisible meridians criss-crossing the body wherein there are trigger spots which, when stimulated, can produce an array of benefits remote from that site. Scientists however, while dismissing the prescientific explanations offered by traditional Chinese medicine, have sought other reasons why acupuncture might provide clinical benefits particularly the relief of pain. Numerous theories have been addressed by numerous studies with many being conducted using disciplined scientific methods. The conclusions leave us with no doubt that acupuncture provides the scenario for a superb theatrical placebo; no more.”

According to Dr Novella:  “Pain is a big problem. If you read about pain management centers, you might think it had been solved. It has not. And when no effective treatment exists for a medical problem, it leads to a tendency to clutch at straws. Research has shown that acupuncture is little more than such a straw. It is clear from meta-analyses that results of acupuncture trials are variable and inconsistent, even for single conditions. After thousands of trials of acupuncture and hundreds of systematic reviews, arguments continue unabated. In 2011, Pain published an editorial that summed up the present situation well.”

According to Professor London & Dr Barrett: “The optimistic article by Vickers et al did not consider an important point. Research studies may not reflect what takes place in most acupuncturist offices. Most acupuncturists are graduates of “oriental medical schools,” where they learn about 5element theory, “energy” flow through meridians, and other fanciful traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) concepts that do not correspond with scientific knowledge of anatomy, physiology, or pathology. Practitioners of TCM typically rely on inappropriate diagnostic procedures (pulse and tongue diagnosis) and prescribe herbal mixtures that have not been sufficiently studied. Diagnoses based on TCM such as “Qi stagnation,” “blood stagnation,” “kidney Qi deficiency,” and “yin deficiency” may not jeopardize patients who are treated in an academic setting, where they have received a medical diagnosed before entering the study. But what about people with conditions that TCM-trained acupuncturists are not qualified or inclined to diagnose? Real-world evaluations of acupuncture should also consider the cost of unnecessary treatment.”

According to Professor Salzberg: “Acupuncture is a pre-scientific practice that persists only because of relentless and often very clever marketing by its proponents. The claimed mechanisms by which acupuncture works are clearly and obviously false: modern physiology, neurology, cell biology, and other scientific disciplines explain how pain signals are transmitted in the body, and none of them support the supposed “qi” or energy fields flowing along “meridians,” as acupuncturists describe them. Hundreds of scientific studies have shown that acupuncture doesn’t work for any medical condition. Acupuncture proponents ignore the evidence and persist, primarily because they profit from their practices. There are also documented risks of complications from acupuncture, ranging from infections to punctured lungs. For these and other reasons, recommending acupuncture for any patient is simply unethical. Acupuncturists make profits by putting patients at risk.”

According to Professor French: “Acupuncture has been extensively evaluated with respect to its possible therapeutic effectiveness for a wide range of disorders. The overall conclusion from meta-analyses of such studies is that any beneficial effects reported are small in terms of effect size and probably best accounted for in terms of statistical artefacts and placebo effects, etc. In general, the higher the quality of the study, the less likely are any beneficial effects to be reported. In light of this, it would be unwise and unethical to recommend acupuncture as the treatment of choice for any condition.”

According to Dr Renckens: “In 1683 the Dutch physician Willem ten Rhijne published the first book in the western world in which the word ‘acupuncture’ was mentioned, which referred to – as the Dutch title of the book was – ‘The Chinese and Japanese way of curing all diseases and especially the podagra by burning moxa and stabbing the Golden Needle’. This exotic treatment did not gain any popularity in the Netherlands and was mainly ridiculed. This heavenly situation remained unchanged until Nixon’s trip to China (1972) and the ‘successful’ acupuncture-treatment of the journalist James Reston of the New York Times. His story in that influential newspaper caused worldwide interest in acupunctures possible benefits. Also in the Netherlands and as early as 1989 a series of systematic reviews on the efficacy of acupuncture in a number of diseases was published in the Huisarts & Wetenschap, a journal of GP’s in the Dutch language (Ter Riet et al. H&W,1989;32:308-312).Their final conclusion was: ‘the main achievement of Chinese acupuncture is to have discovered a number of spots on the human body into which needles can be safely inserted’. The huge amount of scientific research into acupuncture has since been unable to undermine this right conclusion.”
According to Dr Braillon: “No discrimination!  The US Federal Trade Commission announced that homeopathic drugs should “be held to the same truthin-advertising standards as other products claiming health benefits”; very soon, homeopathic products will include statements indicating: “There is no scientific evidence backing homeopathic health claims” and “Homeopathic claims are based only on theories from the 1700s that are not accepted by modern medical experts.”  In Australia, the Royal Australian College of General Practitioners formally recommended GPs to ban homeopathic products from their prescriptions and pharmacists to ban them from their shelves. The same should be required for acupuncture.”

According to Dr McLennon: “Despite claims for effectiveness, there have been very few studies of acupuncture on children that have confirmed significant benefits.  Conditions such as headache, abdominal pain, bed wetting and fibromyalgia and behaviour problems such as ADHD have been investigated. More trials with better structure have universally been recommended. A double blinded trial on the treatment of headaches with laser acupuncture illustrates the problems. The number of patients was quite small (21 in each arm), the diagnoses were reasonable medically but required rediagnosis to fit Traditional Chinese Medicine criteria and treatments were individualised based on these diagnoses. It was not made clear whether the patients were completely blinded i.e. unaware they received active treatment or placebo. Until blinding can be guaranteed, trials of acupuncture will remain inconclusive.”
According to Professor Holt: “Unlike some alternative therapies, acupuncture has been extensively studied for many medical conditions and a summary would be that the higher the quality of the study, the less likely it is that a benefit other than a placebo effect is found. Studies have shown conclusively that a key aspect of acupuncture, putting needles into energy lines for medical benefits, is not true, and the same effect is elicited wherever the needles are placed. Acupuncture is not a science-based practice, can cause side effects and is not recommended for any medical condition.”

According to Dr Oppel: “It is extremely concerning that there remains no plausible rationale for a mechanism of action of acupuncture.  It is noteworthy that different schools of acupuncture offer contradictory patterns of treatment. It should not go without notice that acupuncture has been so well-researched that there are hundreds , if not thousands, of clinical trials now available Unfortunately, although there is no compelling evidence of effectiveness for any of the myriad of conditions where  acupuncture is claimed to be of benefit, poor quality unreplicated trials continue to be put forward by proponents as proof of acupuncture’s effectiveness. Critical thinkers will also take note that while the large majority of acupuncture trials are positive, the vast majority of properly controlled trials are not.   We are in a situation now where we have excellent evidence that acupuncture is not effective.”

According to Professor Hróbjartsson: “While there have been many trials done with acupuncture, most of them are small pilot studies and large scale high quality trials are rare. Some studies have reported measurable effects, but the mechanism is not yet understood, the size of the effect is small and it is possible that a large part of the effect or all of the effect is placebo. It is obvious that you would see a physiological effect when you stick a needle into your body, the question is whether that has a measurable clinical effect. There is insufficient evidence to say that electro acupuncture is any more or any less effective.”

According to Professor Pandolfi: “With a rationale completely disconnected from the basic principles of science acupuncture cannot be considered as belonging to modern evidence–based medicine.”

According to Professor Baker: “Millions of people are affected every year by these often debilitating and distressing conditions. For most their symptoms improve in days or weeks. However for some, the pain can be distressing and persist for a long time. Regrettably there is a lack of convincing evidence of effectiveness for some widely used treatments. For example acupuncture is no longer recommended for managing low back pain with or without sciatica. This is because there is not enough evidence to show that it is more effective than sham treatment.”

I recently got this comment which might seem reasonable to some readers:

“What is most humorous about the author and this website is how he knocks the hell out of alternative medicine and therapies yet never provides readers with any alternatives, despite claiming to be an expert. For example: it’s like needing new tyres for your car and the salesman keeps on telling you that, I’m sorry this tyre, that tyre, and that tyre is not suitable for your car either. So you ask We’ll what tyre do you recommend then and he says… No comment. Anyone can pick holes in anything that’s easy, but to offer alternatives and provide useful workable information, to complete the equation that’s what is really needed. So all the author is doing is adding negativity and problems to this world without providing any real solutions.”


Not really!

Why not?

There are several reasons, for instance:

  1. Legitimate criticism is not the same as “knocking the hell” out of something.
  2. Responsible physicians do not offer ‘real solutions’ via the Internet without knowing the full details of the patient they are talking to. In my view, this would not be ethical.

“Yeah, pull the other one!” I hear my opponents mumble. “There must be general solutions to the problems you are discussing on this blog that do not need any knowledge about specific patients!”

Perhaps, let’s see.

Let me go through 5 recent posts and let me try – in deviation from my usual stance – to offer some solutions that are reasonable, ethical and responsible.

  • here I knocked the hell out of Bowen technique advertised for “a wide range of acute and chronic conditions, including back pain, sciatica, neck, shoulder and knee problems, arthritis, asthma, migraine, sports injuries and stress”. My solution: if you suffer from any of these problems, see a good physician, get a proper diagnosis and an evidence-based treatment that fits your special needs.
  • here I knocked the hell out of alternative therapies for chronic pain. My solution: if you suffer from any of these problems, see a good physician, get a proper diagnosis and an evidence-based treatment that fits your special needs.
  • Here I knocked the hell out of homeopathy which allegedly is employed “all over the world [by] doctors, nurses, midwives, vets  and other healthcare professional  who integrate  CAM therapies into their daily  practice because they see effectiveness.” My solution: if you suffer from any of these problems, see a good physician, get a proper diagnosis and an evidence-based treatment that fits your special needs.
  • Here I knocked the hell out of ‘Brain Dust’, an “adaptogenic elixir to maintain healthy systems for superior states of clarity, memory, creativity, alertness and a capacity to handle stress”. My solution: if you suffer from any of these problems, see a good physician, get a proper diagnosis and an evidence-based treatment that fits your special needs.
  • Here I knocked the hell out of homeopathy for allergic rhinitis. My solution: if you suffer allergic rhinitis, see a specialist, get a proper diagnosis and an evidence-based treatment that fits your special needs.

Sorry, am I boring you?

Yes, that’s why I don’t usually offer ‘real solutions’.

I rest my case.

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