case report

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This is a blog about alternative medicine! A blog that promised to cover all major forms of alternative medicine. So, how could I have so far ignored the incredible health benefits of Apple Cider Vinegar (ACV)? Realising that this omission is quite frankly scandalous, I now quickly try to make amends by dedicating this entire post to ACV and its fantastic properties.

There is no shortage of information on the subject (almost 1.5 million websites!!!); this article entitled “13 Reasons Apple Cider Vinegar Is the Magic Potion You Need in Your Life”, for instance, tells us about the ’13 Real Benefits of vinegar’. As it was published in the top science journal ‘COSMOPOLITAN’, it must be reliable. The article makes the wonders of ACV very clear:


1. It reduces bloating. Vinegar increases the acidity in the stomach, which allows it to digest the food you’ve eaten and helps propel it into the small intestine, according to Raphael Kellman, MD, founder of the Kellman Center for Integrative and Functional Medicine in New York City. Because slow digestion can cause acid reflux, a burning sensation that occurs when food in your stomach backs up all the way into your esophagus and triggers feelings of fullness, consuming vinegar to move things along can stop you from feeling like the Pillsbury Dough Boy.

2. It increases the benefits of the vitamins and minerals in your food. “When your stomach isn’t producing enough acid, this impairs the absorption of nutrients as well as B6, folate, calcium, and iron,” Dr. Kellman explains. Help your body by ingesting a bit more acid in the form of vinegar, and you’ll actually be able to use all the good stuff you consumed by ordering the side salad instead of fries.

3. It cancels out some of the carbs you eat. The acetic acid found in vinegar interferes with the enzymes in your stomach responsible for digesting starch so you can’t absorb the calories from carbs you’ve eaten.

4. It softens your energy crash after eating lots of sugar or carbs. Consuming vinegar before a meal can help by slowing the rush of sugar to your blood stream, so your blood sugar spike resembles a hill instead of a mountain and you don’t crash quite as hard.

5. It keeps you full longer. In a small but thorough study, researchers found that people who consumed vinegar before eating a breakfast of white bread felt more satisfied 90 minutes after eating compared to people who only ate the bread. (Worth noting: Two hours after eating, both groups were equally hungry. It just goes to show why white bread doesn’t make a stellar breakfast food — with or without vinegar.)

6. It can help your muscles produce energy more efficiently before a major push. Endurance athletes sometimes drink diluted vinegar before they carb-load the night before competing because acetic acid can helps the muscles turn carbs into energy to fuel intense exercise, according to well-regarded research conducted on animals.

7. It could lower your blood pressure. Animal studies suggest that drinking vinegar can lower your blood pressure by a few points. Researchers don’t understand exactly how this works or whether it is equally effective among humans, but Johnston is pretty confident it can make at least a modest difference.

8. It cleans fruits and veggies. The best way to clean produce, according to Johnston, is with diluted vinegar: Research suggests its antibacterial properties can significantly reduce pathogens such as Salmonella. Just fill an empty spray bottle with diluted vinegar and spritz your produce (salad stuff, fruits, etc.) then rinse in regular water before serving.

9. It kills bad breath. You might have heard that the antibacterial properties of vinegar can kill microorganisms responsible for bad breath — and in theory, this is true. However, Johnston warns, “it’s no more effective than any other antibacterial agents, and there are better products designed for this purpose.”

10. It deodorizes smelly feet. Just wipe down your clompers with a paper towel dipped in diluted vinegar. The antibacterial properties of vinegar will kill the smelly stuff.

11. It relieves jellyfish stings. In case you’re ever stung by a jellyfish and just so happen to have diluted vinegar on hand, you’ll be awfully lucky: Vinegar deactivates the jellyfish’s sting better than many other remedies — even though hot water still works best, according to a study that compared both techniques.

12. It balances your body’s pH levels, which could mean better bone health. Although vinegar is obviously acidic, it actually has a neutralizing effect once it’s inside of you. Meaning: It makes your body’s pH more basic (i.e., alkaline).

13. It alleviates heartburn — sometimes, according to Johnston, who just wrapped up a study on using vinegar to treat this condition. Vinegar’s effectiveness depends on the source of your heartburn: If you have erosive heartburn caused by lesions in your esophagus or stomach ulcers, a dose of vinegar will only aggravate the problem. But if your heartburn stems from something you ate, adding acetic acid to your stomach can help neutralize the acid in there and help fix the problem, providing you with at least a little bit of comfort.


What, you are not impressed by these claims nor the references? I found another website that offers plenty more science:

  1. Katie J. Astell, Michael L. Mathai, Andrew J. McAinch, Christos G. Stathis, Xiao Q. Su. A pilot study investigating the effect of Caralluma fimbriata extract on the risk factors of metabolic syndrome in overweight and obese subjects: a randomised controlled clinical trial. Biomedical and Lifestyle Diseases (BioLED) Unit, College of Health and Biomedicine, Victoria University, Melbourne, Victoria 3021, Australia.
  2. Niedzielin, K., Kordecki, H.,,_double_blind,_randomized_study_on.4.aspx
  3. M. Million, et al. Obesity-associated gut microbiota is enriched in Lactobacillus reuteri and depleted in Bifidobacterium animalis and Methanobrevibacter smithii. International Journal of Obesity (2012) 36, 817–825; doi:10.1038/ijo.2011.153; published online 9 August 2011
  4. Rastmanesh R., et al. High polyphenol, low probiotic diet for weight loss because of intestinal microbiota interaction. Chemico-Biological InteractionsPublished 15 October 2010.
  5. Thielecke F, et al. Epigallocatechin-3-gallate and postprandial fat oxidation in overweight/obese male volunteers: a pilot study Eur J Clin Nutr. 2010 Jul;64(7):704-13. doi: 10.1038/ejcn.2010.47.
  6. Wang H., Effects of catechin enriched green tea on body composition. Obesity (Silver Spring). 2010 Apr;18(4):773-9. doi: 10.1038/oby.2009.256.
  7. Bitange Nipa Tochi, Zhang Wang, Shi – Ying Xu and Wenbin Zhang, 2008. Therapeutic Application of Pineapple Protease (Bromelain): A Review. Pakistan Journal of Nutrition, 7: 513-520.
  8. Date K, Satoh A, Iida K, Ogawa H. Pancreatic α-Amylase Controls Glucose Assimilation by Duodenal Retrieval through N-Glycan-specific Binding, Endocytosis, and Degradation. J Biol Chem. 2015 May 28. pii: jbc.M114.594937.
  9. Perano SJ,Couper JJ,Horowitz M, Martin AJ, Kritas S, Sullivan T, Rayner CK. Pancreatic enzyme supplementation improves the incretin hormone response and attenuates postprandial glycemia in adolescents with cystic fibrosis: a randomized crossover trial.J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 2014 Jul;99(7):2486-93. doi: 10.1210/jc.2013-4417. Epub 2014 Mar 26.

Ok, not plenty; and not very sound or relevant either.

So, let’s do a Medline search! This is sure to produce convincing clinical trials on human patients that back up all of the above claims.

Yes! Medline does indeed generate 58 hits for ACV (just to give you a comparison, searching for ‘atenolol’, a fairly ancient beta-blocker, for instance, generates 7877 hits and searching for ‘acupuncture’ provides more that 27 000 hits):

The first human study of ACV listed on Medline is from one of my favourite journals, the . It is not a clinical trial, but a case report:

A 32-y-old married woman was admitted with intense vaginal discharge with foul odor, itching, groin pain, and infertility for the past 5 y. Candida albicans was isolated from the culture of vaginal swab. The patient was diagnosed with chronic vaginal candida infection. She failed to respond to integrative medicine methods prescribed. Recovery was achieved with the application of apple cider vinegar. Alternative treatment methods can be employed in patients unresponsive to medical therapies. As being one of these methods, application of apple cider vinegar can cure vaginal candida infection.

But surely that cannot be all!

No, no, no! There is more; a pilot study has also been published. It included all of 10 patients and concluded that vinegar affects insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus patients with diabetic gastroparesis by reducing the gastric emptying rate even further, and this might be a disadvantage regarding to their glycaemic control.

That’s what I like! A bold statement, even though we are dealing with a tiny pilot. He who dares wins!

Anything else?

Afraid not! The rest of the 58 references are either animal studies, in vitro experiments or papers that were entirely irrelevant for the clinical effects of ACV.

But how can this be?

Does this mean that all the claims made by ‘COSMOPOLITAN’ and thousands of other publications are bogus?

I cannot imagine – no, it must mean that, yet again, science has simply not kept up with the incredible pace of alternative medicine.


During Voltaire’s time, this famous quote was largely correct. But today, things are very different, and I often think this ‘bon mot’ ought to be re-phrased into ‘The art of alternative medicine consists in amusing the patient, while medics cure the disease’.

To illustrate this point, I shall schematically outline the story of a patient seeking care from a range of clinicians. The story is invented but nevertheless based on many real experiences of a similar nature.

Tom is in his mid 50s, happily married, mildly over-weight and under plenty of stress. In addition to holding a demanding job, he has recently moved home and, as a consequence of lots of heavy lifting, his whole body aches. He had previous episodes of back trouble and re-starts the exercises a physio once taught him. A few days later, the back-pain has improved and most other pains have subsided as well. Yet a dull and nagging pain around his left shoulder and arm persists.

He is tempted to see his GP, but his wife is fiercely alternative. She was also the one who dissuaded  Tom from taking Statins for his high cholesterol and put him on Garlic pills instead. Now she gives Tom a bottle of her Rescue Remedy, but after a week of taking it Tom’s condition is unchanged. His wife therefore persuades him to consult alternative practitioners for his ‘shoulder problem’. Thus he sees a succession of her favourite clinicians.

THE CHIROPRACTOR examines Tom’s spine and diagnoses subluxations to be the root cause of his problem. Tom thus receives a series of spinal manipulations and feels a little improved each time. But he is disappointed that the pain in the left shoulder and arm returns. His wife therefore makes another appointment for him.

THE ENERGY HEALER diagnoses a problem with Tom’s vital energy as the root cause of his persistent pain. Tom thus receives a series of healing sessions and feels a little improved each time. But he is disappointed that the pain in the left shoulder and arm returns. His wife therefore makes another appointment for him.

THE REFLEXOLOGIST examines Tom’s foot and diagnoses knots on the sole of his foot to cause energy blockages which are the root cause of his problem. Tom thus receives a series of most agreeable foot massages and feels a little improved each time. But he is disappointed that the pain in the left shoulder and arm returns. His wife therefore makes another appointment for him.

THE ACUPUNCTURIST examines Tom’s pulse and tongue and diagnoses a chi deficiency to be the root cause of his problem. Tom thus receives a series of acupuncture treatments and feels a little improved each time. But he is disappointed that the pain in the left shoulder and arm returns. His wife therefore makes another appointment for him.

THE NATUROPATH examines Tom and diagnoses some form of auto-intoxication as the root cause of his problem. Tom thus receives a full program of detox and feels a little improved each time. But he is disappointed that the pain in the left shoulder and arm returns. His wife therefore makes another appointment for him.

THE HOMEOPATH takes a long and detailed history and diagnoses a problem with Tom’s vital force to be the root cause of his pain. Tom thus receives a homeopathic remedy tailor-made for his needs and feels a little improved after taking it for a few days. But he is disappointed that the pain in the left shoulder and arm returns. His wife therefore tries to make another appointment for him.

But this time, Tom had enough. His pain has not really improved and he is increasingly feeling unwell.

At the risk of a marital dispute, he consults his GP. The doctor looks up Tom’s history, asks a few questions, conducts a brief physical examination, and arranges for Tom to see a specialist. A cardiologist diagnoses Tom to suffer from coronary heart disease due to a stenosis in one of his coronary arteries. She explains that Tom’s dull pain in the left shoulder and arm is a rather typical symptom of this condition.

Tom has to have a stent put into the affected coronary artery, receives several medications to lower his cholesterol and blood pressure, and is told to take up regular exercise, lose weight and make several other changes to his stressful life-style. Tom’s wife is told in no uncertain terms to stop dissuading her husband from taking his prescribed medicines, and the couple are both sent to see a dietician who offers advice and recommends a course on healthy cooking. Nobody leaves any doubt that not following this complex (holistic!) package of treatments and advice would be a serious risk to Tom’s life.

It has taken a while, but finally Tom is pain-free. More importantly, his prognosis has dramatically improved. The team who now look after him have no doubt that a major heart attack had been imminent, and Tom could easily have died had he continued to listen to the advice of multiple non-medically trained clinicians.

The root cause of his condition was misdiagnosed by all of them. In fact, the root cause was the atherosclerotic degeneration in his arteries. This may not be fully reversible, but even if the atherosclerotic process cannot be halted completely, it can be significantly slowed down such that he can live a full life.

My advice based on this invented and many real stories of a very similar nature is this:

  • alternative practitioners are often good at pampering their patients;
  • this may contribute to some perceived clinical improvements;
  • in turn, this perceived benefit can motivate patients to continue their treatment despite residual symptoms;
  • alternative practitioner’s claims about ‘root causes’ and holistic care are usually pure nonsense;
  • their pampering may be agreeable, but it can undoubtedly cost lives.

The British press recently reported that a retired bank manager (John Lawler, aged 80) died after visiting a chiropractor in York. This tragic case was published in multiple articles, most recently in THE SUN. Personally, I find this regrettable – not the fact that the press warns consumers of chiropractic, but the tone and content of the articles.

Let me explain this by citing the one in THE SUN of today. Here is the critical bit that concerns me:

Ezvard Ernst, Emeritus Professor of Complementary Medicine at Exeter University, published a study showing at least 26 people had died as a result. He said: “The evidence is not in favour of chiropractic treatments. Nobody knows how many have suffered severe complications or died.” Edvard Ernst, Professor of Complementary Medicine, says many have suffered complications or died from chiropractors treatments… A study from Exeter University shows at least 26 people have died as a result of treatment.

And what is wrong with this?

The answer is lots:

  • My first name is consistently misspelled (a triviality, I agree).
  • I am once named as Emeritus Professor and once as Professor of Complementary Medicine. The latter is wrong (another triviality, perhaps, but some of my more demented critics have regularly accused me of carrying wrong titles)
  • The mention of 26 deaths after chiropractic treatments is problematic and arguably misleading (see below).
  • Our ‘study’ was not a study but a systematic review (another triviality?).

Now you probably think I am being pedantic, but I feel that the article is regrettable not so much by what it says but by what it fails to say. To understand this better, I will below copy my emails to the journalist who asked for help in researching this article.

  • My email of 17/10 answering all 7 of the journalist’s specific questions:
  • 1. Why are you sceptical of chiropractic?
  • I have researched the subject for more than 2 decades, and I know that the evidence is not in favour of chiropractic
  • 2. How many people do you believe have died in Britain as a result of being treated by a chiropractor? If it’s not possible to say, can you estimate?
  • nobody knows how many patients have suffered severe complications or deaths. there is no system to monitor such events that is comparable to the post-marketing surveillance of conventional medicine. we did some research and found that the under-reporting of cases of severe complications was close to 100% in the UK.
  • 3. What is so dangerous about chiropractic? Is there a particular physical treatment than endangers life?
  • manipulations that involve rotation and over-extension of the upper spine can lead to a vertebral artery breaking up. this causes a stroke which sometimes is fatal.
  • 4. Is the industry well regulated?
  • UK chiropractors are regulated by the General Chiropractic Council. it is debatable whether they are fit for purpose (see here:
  • 5. Should we be suspicious of claims that chiropractic can cure things like IBS and autism?
  • such claims are not based on good evidence and therefore misleading and unethical. sadly, however, they are prevalent.
  • 6. Who trains chiropractors?
  • there are numerous colleges that specialise in that activity.
  • 7. Is it true Prince Charles is to blame for the rise in popularity/prominence of chiropractic?
  • I am not sure. certainly he has been promoting all sorts of unproven treatments for decades.
  • My email of 18/10 answering 3 further specific questions
  • 1. Would you actively discourage anyone from being treated by a chiropractor?
    yes, anyone I feel responsible for
    2. Are older people particularly at risk or could one wrong move affect anyone?
    older people are at higher risk of bone fractures and might also have more brittle arteries prone to dissection
    3. If someone has, say, a bad back or stiff neck what treatment would you recommend instead of chiropractic?
    I realise every case is different, but you are sceptical of all complementary treatments (as I understand it) so what would you suggest instead?
    I would normally consider therapeutic exercises and recommend seeing a good physio.
  • 3. My email of 23/10 replying to his request for specific UK cases
  • the only thing I can offer is this 2001 paper
  • where we discovered 35 cases seen by UK neurologists within the preceding year. the truly amazing finding here was that NONE of them had been reported anywhere before. this means under-reporting was exactly 100%.

I think that makes it quite obvious that much relevant information never made it into the final article. I also know that several other experts provided even more information than I did which never appeared.

The most important issues, I think, are firstly the lack of a monitoring system for adverse events, secondly the level of under-reporting and thirdly the 50% rate of mild to moderate adverse-effects. Without making these issues amply clear, lay readers cannot possibly make any sense of the 26 deaths. More importantly, chiropractors will now be able to respond by claiming: 26 deaths compare very favourably with the millions of fatalities caused by conventional medicine. In the end, the message that will remain in the heads of many consumers is this: CONVENTIONAL MEDICINE IS MUCH MORE DANGEROUS THAN CHIROPRACTIC!!! (The 1st comment making this erroneous point has already been published: Don’t be stupid Andy. You wanna discuss how many deaths occur due to medication side effects and drug interactions? There is a reason chiros have the lowest malpractice rates.)

Don’t get me wrong, I am not accusing the author of the SUN-article. For all I know, he has filed a very thoughtful and complete piece. It might have been shortened by the editor who may also have been the one adding the picture of the US starlet with her silicone boobs. But I am accusing THE SUN of missing a chance to publish something that might have had the chance of being a meaningful contribution to public health.

Perhaps you still think this is all quite trivial. Yet, after having experienced this sort of thing dozens, if not hundreds of times, I disagree.

According to its authors, the objective of this paper was “to demonstrate the need for using both alternative and conventional treatments to improve clinical outcomes in the treatment of schizoaffective disorder”.

Instead of doing anything remotely like this, the authors present two case histories:

  • a 23-y-old female (case 1)
  • and a 34-y-old female (case 2).

Both patients had been diagnosed with schizoaffective disorder of the bipolar type. Individualized homeopathic treatment was initiated for both patients, who were also on conventional medications. A Likert scale was used to evaluate the intensity of each patient’s symptoms at each follow-up, based on self-reporting.

During the course of treatment, both patients’ symptoms normalized, and they regained their ability to hold jobs, attend school (at the age of 23/34 ???), and maintain healthy relationships with their families and partners while requiring fewer pharmaceutical interventions.

The authors concluded that these two cases …  illustrate the value of individualized homeopathic prescriptions with proper case management in the successful treatment of that disorder. Future large-scale, double-blind, placebo-controlled studies should investigate individualized homeopathic treatments for mental health concerns, because the diseases cause great economic and social burden.

The article was published in Altern Ther Health Grise DE, Peyman T, and Langland J who seem to be from the ‘Southwest College of Naturopathic Medicine, Tempe, Arizona’. Two of the authors have recently published similarly odd case reports:

  1. This case report demonstrates a successful approach to managing patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (DM2). Botanical herbs (including Gymnema sylvestre) and nutrients (including alpha lipoic acid and chromium) were used alongside metformin to help improve insulin sensitization; however, the greatest emphasis of treatment for this patient centered on a low-carbohydrate, whole-foods diet and regular exercise that shifted the focus to the patient’s role in controlling their disease. Research on DM2 often focuses on improving drug efficacy while diet and lifestyle are generally overlooked as both a preventive and curative tool. During the 7 months of treatment, the patient’s hemoglobin A1c and fasting glucose significantly decreased to within normal ranges and both cholesterol and liver enzyme markers normalized. A significant body of evidence already exists advocating for disease management using various diets, including Mediterranean, low-carb, and low-fat vegan diets; however, no clear dietary standards have been established. This study supports the use of naturopathic medicine as well as dietary and lifestyle changes to develop the most efficacious approach for the treatment of DM2.
  2. This case report illustrates the improvement of an acupuncture-treated patient who incurred a severe traumatic brain injury (TBI) from a snowboarding accident. Over 4 years, the patient progressed from initially not being able to walk, having difficulty with speech, and suffering from poor eyesight to where he has now regained significant motor function, speech, and vision and has returned to snowboarding. A core acupuncture protocol plus specific points added to address the patient’s ongoing concerns was used. This case adds to the medical literature by demonstrating the potential role of acupuncture in TBI treatment.
  3. The current case study intended to evaluate the benefits of an alternative, multifaceted approach-including botanical and homeopathic therapies in conjunction with a low-FODMAP diet-in the treatment of small intestinal bacterial overgrowth (SIBO) and its associated symptoms. Design • The research team performed a case study. Setting • The study was conducted at SCNM Medical Center (Tempe, AZ, USA). Participant • The participant was a female patient at the SCNM Medical Center with chronic, daily, severe abdominal bloating and pain that particularly worsened after meals and by the end of the day. The patient also had a significant history of chronic constipation that had begun approximately 10 y prior to her experiencing the daily abdominal pain. Intervention • Based on a lactulose breath test for hydrogen and methane, the research team diagnosed the patient with a case of mild SIBO. The treatment approach was multifaceted, involving a low-FODMAP diet, antimicrobial botanical therapy, and homeopathic medicine. Results • The patient’s abdominal pain and bloating resolved with the treatment of the SIBO, although her underlying constipation, which was likely associated with other factors, remained. Conclusions • This case study supports an alternative, multifaceted approach to the treatment of SIBO and commonly associated symptoms.
  4. The study intended to examine the benefits of treating plantar warts with a topical, botanical blend that has had clinical success treating herpes simplex virus cold sores. Methods • A synergistic botanical blend was applied topically. Setting • The case report was completed at the Southwest College of Naturopathic Medicine (Tempe, Arizona, USA). Participant • The participant was a 24-y-old male soccer player, 177.8 cm tall, and weighing 69 kg with previously diagnosed, viral mosaic warts. Intervention • The patient used a pumice stone during bathing for the first week to remove dead tissue and ensure sufficient contact and entry of the botanical gel into infected tissue. After drying the area, the patient applied the botanical gel blend 1 to 2 times daily postshower, spreading it evenly across the surface of the entire lesion. The patient discontinued the exfoliation technique after the first week. Results • Within the first week of treatment, the patient noted changes to the infected area of the hallux epidermal tissue. The combination of exfoliation and application of the gel caused marked, visible differences in presentation by the fifth day of treatment. At 1-mo postintervention, or day 90, the epidermal tissue was asymptomatic and devoid of petechiae, malformations, or visible infection. Conclusions • The results of the current case study directly contrast with the drawbacks of commonly accepted, first-line interventions in the treatment of viral plantar warts and, in many respects, demonstrate better efficacy and fewer side effects than the standard of care. The positive results also highlight the necessity for additional study in the fields of sports medicine and podiatry to further establish the botanical blend when treating viral plantar in athletes, an overall at-risk population for the condition.
  5. This study intended to examine the benefits of treatment of a pediatric patient with natural supplements and an elimination diet for IgG food allergies. Design • The research team reported a case study. Setting • The study was conducted at Southwest Naturopathic Medical Center (Tempe, AZ, USA). Participant • The participant was a 10-y-old Caucasian female who had diagnoses of allergic rhinitis and reactive bronchospasm, the second of which was exacerbated by allergens such as wheat, perfumes, and seasonal flora. Intervention • Following testing for IgE- and IgG-reactive foods, the patient was treated with natural supplements to reduce her allergic responses and was instructed to make dietary changes to eliminate the IgG-reactive foods. Outcome Measures • The patient’s symptom severity was tracked starting 1 mo after her initial visit to Southwest Naturopathic Medical Center. The severity was based on the patient’s subjective reports about her congestion to her mother and on her mother’s observations of the effect of symptoms on her attention and school performance. The bronchospasm severity was based on the frequency of a sensation of wheezing and chest tightness, the frequency of inhaler use, and the occurrence of any exacerbation of symptoms with acute respiratory illness Results • After 1 mo, in which the patient used the natural supplements, she experienced a 90% improvement in coughing; a 70% improvement in nasal congestion; less chest tightness; and no need for use of loratadine, diphenhydramine, or albuterol. At the 8-mo follow-up visit, her nasal congestion was reported to be entirely gone. Conclusions • The case demonstrates the effectiveness of natural supplements and a diet eliminating IgG-reactive foods in the treatment and management of pediatric allergic rhinitis and reactive bronchospasm.

These articles are all quite similarly ridiculous, but the first one reporting two patients who felt better after taking individualised homeopathic remedies (together with conventional medicines) is, I think, the ‘best’. I suggest the authors continue their high-flying careers by publishing a series of further case reports on similar themes:

  • How the crowing of the cock in the morning causes the sun to rise.
  • The danger of WW 3 causes Americans to elect an idiot as president.
  • Increase of CO2 emissions due to global warming.
  • Immunisation neglect caused by measles outbreaks.
  • Brexit vote due to economic downturn.
  • Excessive alcohol consumption caused by hangover.
  • Why does lying in bed cause tiredness?

Please feel free to suggest more ‘post hoc propter hoc’ research themes for our aspiring team of naturopathic pseudo-scientists to be published in Altern Ther Health Med.




We all know Epsom salt, don’t we? This paper provides an interesting history of it: The purgative effect of the waters of Epsom, in southern England, was first discovered in the early seventeenth century. Epsom subsequently developed as one of the great English spas where high society flocked to take the medicinal waters. The extraction of the Epsom Salts from the spa waters and their chemical analysis, the essential feature of which was magnesium sulphate, were first successfully carried out by Doctor Nehemiah Grew, distinguished as a physician, botanist and an early Fellow of the Royal Society. His attempt to patent the production and sale of the Epsom Salts precipitated a dispute with two unscrupulous apothecaries, the Moult brothers. This controversy must be set against the backcloth of the long-standing struggle over the monopoly of dispensing of medicines between the Royal College of Physicians and the Worshipful Society of Apothecaries of London.

Epsom salt has the reputation of being very safe. But unfortunately, even something as seemingly harmless as Epsom salt can become dangerous in the hand of people who have little understanding of physiology and medicine. Indian doctors have just published a paper in (‘BMJ Case Reports’) with the details of a 38-year-old non-alcoholic, non-diabetic man suffering from gallstones. The patient was prescribed three tablespoons of Epsom salt to be taken with lukewarm water for 15 days for ‘stone dissolution’ by a ‘naturopathy practitioner’. He subsequently developed loss of appetite and darkening of urine from the 12th day of treatment and jaundice from the second day after treatment completion. The patient denied fevers, skin rash, joint pains, myalgia, abdominal pain, abdominal distension and cholestatic symptoms.

Examination revealed a deeply icteric patient oriented to time, place and person without an enlarged liver or stigmata of chronic liver disease. Liver function tests were abnormal, and a  liver biopsy revealed sub-massive necrosis with dense portal-based fibrosis, mixed portal inflammation, extensive peri-venular canalicular and hepatocellular cholestasis with macro-vesicular steatosis and peri-sinusoidal fibrosis (suggestive of steato-hepatitis) without evidence of granulomas, inclusion bodies or vascular changes suggestive of acute drug-induced liver injury.

After discontinuation of Epsom salt and adequate hydration, the patient had an uneventful recovery with normalisation of liver function tests after 38 days.  The Roussel Uclaf Causality Assessment score was strongly suggestive of Epsom salt-induced liver injury.

I was invited to provide a comment and stated that, in my view, this case reminds us:

1) that naturopaths prescribe a lot of nonsense,

2) that not everything which is promoted as natural is safe,

3) that treatments which apparently have ‘stood the test of time’ can still be rubbish, and

4) that even a relatively harmless remedy can become life-threatening, if one takes it at a high dose for a prolonged period of time.

Naturopaths have advocated Epsom salt for gall-bladder problems since centuries, yet there is no good evidence that it works. It is time that alternative practitioners abide by the rules of evidence-based medicine.

A quick Medline search reveals that there is only one further report of a serious adverse effect after Epsom salt intake: a case of fatal hypermagnesemia caused by an Epsom salt enema. A 7-year-old male presented with cardiac arrest and was found to have a serum magnesium level of 41.2 mg/dL (33.9 mEq/L) after having received an Epsom salt enema earlier that day. The medical history of Epsom salt, the common causes and symptoms of hypermagnesemia, and the treatment of hypermagnesemia are reviewed. The easy availability of magnesium, the subtle initial symptoms of hypermagnesemia, and the need for education about the toxicity of magnesium should be of interest to physicians.

… and to alternative practitioners, I hasten to add.

How often have we heard that chiropractic has moved on and has given up the concept of subluxation/malalignment? For sure there is no evidence for such nonsense, and it would be high time to give it up!  But, as has been argued here and elsewhere, if chiros give it up, what is there left? What then would differentiate them from physios ? The answer is not a lot.

In any case, chiros have by no means given up subluxation. One can argue this point ad nauseam; yet, most chiros remain in denial.

For this post, I have chosen a different approach to make my point. I simply went on twitter and had a look what messages chiros tweet. The impression I got is that the majority of chiros are totally immersed in subluxation. To provide some proof, I have copied a few images – if chiros do not listen to words, perhaps they understand pictures, I thought.

So, here we go – enjoy!

[please click to see them full size]


On this blog, we have often discussed the risks of spinal manipulation. As I see it, the information we have at present suggests that

  • mild to moderate adverse effects are extremely frequent and occur in about half of all patients;
  • serious adverse effects are being reported regularly;
  • the occur usually with chiropractic manipulations of the neck (which are not of proven efficacy for any condition) and often relate to vascular accidents;
  • the consequences can be permanent neurological deficits and even deaths;
  • under-reporting of such cases might be considerable and therefore precise incidence figures are not available;
  • there is no system to accurately monitor the risks;
  • chiropractors are in denial of these problems.

Considering the seriousness of these issues, it is important to do more rigorous research. Therefore, any new paper published on this subject is welcome. A recent article might shed new light on the topic.

The objective of this systematic review was to identify characteristics of 1) patients, 2) practitioners, 3) treatment process and 4) adverse events (AE) occurring after cervical spinal manipulation (CSM) or cervical mobilization. A systematic searches were performed in 6 electronic databases up to December 2014. Of the initial 1043 articles thus located, 144 were included, containing 227 cases. 117 cases described male patients with a mean age of 45 and a mean age of 39 for females. Most patients were treated by chiropractors (66%). Manipulation was reported in 95% of the cases, and neck pain was the most frequent indication for the treatment. Cervical arterial dissection (CAD) was reported in 57%  of the cases and 45.8% had immediate onset symptoms. The overall distribution of gender for CAD was 55% for female. Patient characteristics were described poorly. No clear patient profile, related to the risk of AE after CSM, could be extracted, except that women seemed more at risk for CAD. The authors of this review concluded that there seems to be under-reporting of cases. Further research should focus on a more uniform and complete registration of AE using standardized terminology.

This article provides little new information; but it does confirm what I have been saying since many years: NECK MANIPULATIONS ARE ASSOCIATED WITH SERIOUS RISKS AND SHOULD THEREFORE BE AVOIDED.

The current volume of the ‘Allgemeinen Homöopathischen Zeitung’ contains all the abstracts of the ‘Homeopathic World Congress 2017’ which will be hosted in Leipzig, 14-17 July this year by the ‘Deutschen Zentralvereins Homöopathischer Ärzte’ under the patronage of the German Health Secretary, Annette Widmann-Mauz. As not many readers of this blog are likely to be regular readers of this important journal, I have copied six of the more amusing abstracts below:

A male patient with bilateral solid renal mass was investigated and given an individualized homeopathic remedy. Antimonium crudum in 50000 potency was selected after proper case taking and evaluation. Investigations were done before and after treatment. Follow ups took place monthly. Results The patient had symptomatic relief from pain in flanks, acute retention and hematuria. The ultrasonography suggests a reduction in size of both lesions over a period of two years. A small number of lymph nodes of the para-aortic group are still visible. There is a normal level of urea and creatinine, no anemia or hypertention. The patient is surviving since 2014. Conclusion In the present day when malignancies are treated with surgeries, chemo and radiotherapies, homeopathy has a significant role to play as seen in the above case. This case with bilateral solid renal mass, probably a renal cell carcinoma, received an individualized homeopathic remedy-treatment compliant with the totality of symptoms, and permitted the patient to live longer without anemia, hypertension, anorexia or weight loss. The quality of life was maintained without the side effects of surgery, radiotherapy and chemotherapy. Acute retentions, which he used to suffer also remained absent, thereafter. The result of this case suggests to take up further studies on individualized homeopathic treatment in malignant diseases.

Urinary tract infections (UTI) are often a complaint in the homeopathic practice, mainly as uncomplicated infections in the form of a one time event. Some patients, however, have a tendency to develop recurrent or complicated urinary tract infections. Methods It is shown on the basis of case documentation that UTI should be treated homeopathic, variably. The issue of prophylaxis will be discussed. Results If there is a tendency to complicated UTI, chronic treatment after case taking of the symptom-totality of the affected must take place during a free interval. In contrast, the chronically recurring and flaming up of UTI, as well as the uniquely occurring of uncomplicated UTI, are handled as an acute illness. The treatment is based on the striking, characteristic symptoms of the infected. Conclusion The homeopathic treatment of UTI in the acute case of uncomplicated forms is usually very successful, The chronic treatment of complicated UTI shows certain difficulties. A safe homeopathic prophylaxis, in terms of conventional medicine, is problematical.

The homeopathic clinic of the Municipal Public Servant Hospital of São Paulo (HSPM – Brazil) has among patient records some cases of thyroid gland diseases (hypothyroidism or hyperthyroidism), which were treated whith the systemic homeopathic method of Carillo. This study evaluates patients with diseases of thyroid gland, analyzing improvements using a Iodium-like equalizer, adjacent to the systemic medication. The reviewed 21 cases using Iodium equalizer for the disease, adjacent to the systemic medication, in the homeopathic clinic of the HSPM, from 2000 to 2013. In four cases, it was possible to reduce the dose of allopathic medicine and finally terminate it due to normalization of the thyroid gland function. There was one case of hyperthyroidism and it was possible to terminate the use of methimazole. There were four cases, in which the function of the thyroid gland was normalized without the associated use of hormone. In three cases it was possible to reduce the dose of hormone. There were nine cases, in which it was not possible to reduce the dose of the hormone. In cases where there was an improvement applying homeopathic treatment, TSH and free T4 returned to the normal reference value. In cases that were not effective, TSH and free T4 had not normalized. Therefore, the effectiveness of Iodium depends on the ability and stability of the gland thyroid to increase or decrease hormone production, in addition to the treatment of a chronic disease, that affects the thyroid gland.

Cystitis composes infections in the urinary system, especially bladder and urethra. It has multiple causes, but the most common is infection due to microorganisms such as E. coli, streptococcus, staphylococcus etc. If the system is attacked by pathogenetic agents, the defense must include more powerful noxious agents which can fight and destroy the attacking organisms, here is the role of nosodes. Nosodes are the potentised remedies made up from dangerous noxious materials. The use of nosodes in cystitis is based on the aphorism 26– Therapeutic Law of Nature: A weaker one is always distinguished by the stronger one! Colibacillinum, streptococcinum, staphylococcinum, lyssinum, medorrhinum, psorinum and tuberculinum are useful in handling cystitis relating to the organism involved [as found in urine test] and symptom similarity. Method An observational prospective study on a group of 30 people proves the immediate, stronger defensive action of nosodes. Result Amazing! Nosodes given in low potency provided instant relief to patients. Repetition of the same, over several months offered immunity for further attacks of cystitis, as Hering had already testified nosodes have prophylactic action. Conclusion According to law of similia – as per the pathology, as per the defense! By inducing a strong artificial disease, homeopathy can eliminate the natural disease from the body. Usually nosodes are used as intercurrent drugs which play the role of catalysts, on the journey to recovery, but they are also very effective in cystitis as an acute remedy. Acute cystitis is a very troublesome state for the patients, to cure it homeopathy has an arsenal of nosodes.

In 1991, no antiretroviral therapy (ART) treatment was available. The Central Council for Research in Homeopathy had established a clinical research unit at Mumbai for undertaking investigations in HIV/AIDS. So far 2502 cases have been enrolled for homeopathic treatment and three studies have been published since then. In this paper we will highlight the impact of long term homeopathic management of cases, which have been followed up for more than 15 years. Method The HIV positive cases enrolled in different studies are continuously being managed in this unit and even after study conclusion. All the cases are being treated solely with individualised homeopathy. The cases are assessed clinically (body weight, opportunistic infections, etc.) as well as in respect to CD4 counts and CD4/CD8 ratio. Results The CD4 count was maintained in all patients, except in one case. Three patients had the CD4 level in the range of 500–1200, four in the range of 300–500, one had a 272 CD4 count. There has been a decline of CD4/ CD8 ratio since baseline, but the patients have maintained their body weights and remained free from major HIV related illnesses and opportunistic infections. The frequently indicated remedies were pulsatilla pratensis, lycopodium clavatum, nux vomica,tuberculinum bovinum, natrum muriaticum, rhus toxicodendron, medorrhinum, arsenicum album, mercurius solubilis, thuja occidentalis, nitic acid, sulphur, bryonia alba and hepar sulph. Conclusion In the emergent scenario of drug resistance and adverse reactions of ART in HIV infections, there may be a possibility of employing homeopathy as an adjuvant therapy to existing standard ART treatment. Further studies are desirable.

In the last 20 years we have treated in the Clinica St. Croce many patients with cancer. We often deal with palliative states and we aim at pain relief and improvement of life-quality, and if possible a prolongation of life. Is this possible by prescribing a homeopathic therapy? Methodology The exact application and the knowledge of the responses to the Q-potencies often give indications for the correct choice of remedy. Acute conditions of pain often need a more frequent repetition of the C-potencies needed for pain relief. Results Even with severe pain or in so-called final stages homeopathy can offer great assistance. On the basis of case reports from Clinica St. Croce, the procedure for the homeopathic treatment of cancer, and the treatment of pain and final states will be illustrated and clarified. In addition, some clinically proven homeopathic remedies will be presented for the optimal palliation in the treatment of end-states and accompanying the dying. Conclusions With the precise application and knowledge of the responses to the Q- and C-potencies, the homeopathic doctor is given a wonderful helper to treat even the most serious palliative states and can accomplish, sometimes, a miraculous healing.


These abstracts are truly hilarious and show how totally unaware some homeopaths are of the scientific method. I say ‘some’, but perhaps it is most or even all? How can a scientific committee reviewing these abstracts let them pass and allow the material to be presented at the ‘World Congress’? How can a Health Secretary accept the patronage of such a farce?

These abstracts are therefore not just hilarious but also truly depressing. If we had needed proof that homeopathy has no place in real healthcare of today, these abstracts would go a long way in providing it. To realise that politicians, physicians, patients, consumers, journalists etc. take such infantile nonsense seriously is not just depressing but at the same time worrying, I find.

The website of ‘HOMEOPATHY 360’ has just published a new post offering a handy instruction for killing patients suffering from acute appendicitis. If you do not believe me – I don’t blame you, I too found it hard to believe – read this short excerpt advocating homeopathy for this life-threatening condition (for readers without a medical background: if acute appendicitis is not treated promptly, the inflamed appendix might burst, spilling faecal material into the abdominal cavity, resulting in a life-threatening peritonitis):

The post is entitled “A Cure of Acute Appendicitis Using Frequent Homeopathic Doses in Solution

Here is the abstract:

“Placing centesimal potencies in solution and prescribing them frequently for acute conditions is not widely practiced. It can be superior to dry doses in many cases, where a persistent mild medicinal action is preferred to a strong aggravation. By prescribing dissolved doses of Arnica Montana 1m, a case of acute appendicitis was cured quickly. This suggests that centesimal potencies given frequently in solution may be more efficacious, prompt and gentle than treatment with dry doses.”

Fascinating, isn’t it?

Here are more details demonstrating that the author has done his homework:

“When treating a patient with acute medical condi­tion, in certain cases we fail to cure. Even though our case taking, evaluation, analysis, remedy and potency selection seem correct. What is the cause? In the Organon 5th edition (1833) Dr. Hahnemann introduced olfaction and dissolved centesimal remedies as a new method of administering doses. Around the year 1840 Hahnemann began to introduce LM potencies into his practice. From 1840 to 1843 he used both centesimal and LM potencies side by side in medicinal solutions. By these methods he hoped to avoid unwanted aggravations and provide rapid cure.

In some acute cases the aggravation can be discouragingly pro­longed and often cannot be discerned from the patient’s own disease. Many times we change the original prescrip­tion which could very well have been the simillimum. In acute diseases, a dry dose will many times produce an un­necessary aggravation because of the patient’s increased susceptibility. I have much experience now with what I call a “watery dose.” To prepare it, one or two globules of size 10 are diluted in 15ml. of distilled water in which 5 drops of alcohol added with 20 to 30 succussions. From this solution 10 drops are added to another 15 ml of water, and from this solution 5 to 10 drops dose repeated according to the severity of the disease. In such diluted solutions the correct number of drops must be precise. Every time be­fore taking the dose the solution is succussed 5 to 10 times. The same solution can be used for several days or weeks. Hahnemann recommended using carefully measured and dosed solutions with sensitive patients. Many times I have used this method with great success. It is not necessary to take 4 oz. to 8 oz. of water, Just fifteen ml. of distilled water is sufficient. This technique of dosing is also known as a split dose because it uses one or two pills in a solution that is then split over several days or weeks.

The results using this type of dosing can be very dif­ferent from dry doses. There is continuous amelioration of the complaints without aggravation. This comes closer to the ideal of strengthening the weakened vital force than is seen when we simply produce a similar stronger artificial disease in the patient.”

The author also provides a detailed case history of a patient who survived this treatment (of course, without mentioning that acute appendicitis can, in rare cases, have a spontaneous recovery).


I would not recommend Arnica or any other homeopathic remedy for routine use in acute appendicitis (or any other condition) – unless, of course, you want to kill a maximum number of your patients suffering from this medical/surgical emergency.

The new guidelines by the American College of Physicians entitled ‘Noninvasive Treatments for Acute, Subacute, and Chronic Low Back Pain: A Clinical Practice Guideline From the American College of Physicians’ have already been the subject of the previous post. Today, I want to have a closer look at a small section of these guidelines which, I think, is crucial. It is entitled ‘HARMS OF NONPHARMACOLOGIC THERAPIES’. I have taken the liberty of copying it below:

“Evidence on adverse events from the included RCTs and systematic reviews was limited, and the quality of evidence for all available harms data is low. Harms were poorly reported (if they were reported at all) for most of the interventions.

Low-quality evidence showed no reported harms or serious adverse events associated with tai chi, psychological interventions, multidisciplinary rehabilitation, ultrasound, acupuncture, lumbar support, or traction (9,95,150,170–174). Low-quality evidence showed that when harms were reported for exercise, they were often related to muscle soreness and increased pain, and no serious harms were reported. All reported harms associated with yoga were mild to moderate (119). Low-quality evidence showed that none of the RCTs reported any serious adverse events with massage, although 2 RCTs reported soreness during or after massage therapy (175,176). Adverse events associated with spinal manipulation included muscle soreness or transient increases in pain (134). There were few adverse events reported and no clear differences between MCE and controls. Transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulation was associated with an increased risk for skin site reaction but not serious adverse events (177). Two RCTs (178,179) showed an increased risk for skin flushing with heat compared with no heat or placebo, and no serious adverse events were reported. There were no data on cold therapy. Evidence was insufficient to determine harms of electrical muscle stimulation, LLLT, percutaneous electrical nerve stimulation, interferential therapy, short-wave diathermy, and taping.”

The first thing that strikes me is the brevity of the section. Surely, guidelines of this nature must include a full discussion of the risks of the treatments in question!

The second thing that is noteworthy is the fact that the authors confirm the fact I have been banging on about for years: clinical trials of alternative therapies far too often fail to mention adverse effects.  I have often pointed out that the failure to report adverse effects in clinical trials is an unacceptable violation of medical ethics. By contrast, the guideline authors seem not to feel strongly about this omission.

The third thing that is noteworthy is that the guidelines evaluate the harms of the treatments purely on the basis of the adverse effects reported in the clinical trials and systematic reviews included in their efficacy assessments. This is nonsensical for at least two reasons:

  1. The guideline authors themselves are aware that the trials very often fail to mention adverse effects.
  2. For any assessment of harm, one has to go far beyond the evidence of clinical trials, because trials tend to be too small to pick up rare adverse effects, and because they are always conducted under optimally controlled conditions where adverse effects are less likely to occur than in real life.

Together, these features of the assessment of harms explain why the guideline authors arrive at conclusions which are oddly misguided; I would even feel that they resemble a white-wash. Here are two of the most overt misjudgements:

  • no harms associated with acupuncture,
  • only trivial harm associated with spinal manipulations.

The best evidence we have today shows that acupuncture leads to mild adverse effects in about 10% of all cases and is also associated with very severe complications (e.g. pneumothorax, cardiac tamponade, infections, deaths) in an unknown number of patients. More details can be found for instance here, here, here and here.

And the best evidence available shows that spinal manipulation leads to moderately severe adverse effects in ~50% of all cases. In addition, we know of hundreds of cases of very severe complications resulting in stroke, permanent neurological deficits or deaths. More details can be found for instance here, here, here and here.

In the introduction, I stated that this small section of the guidelines is crucial.


The reason is simple: any responsible therapeutic decision has to be based not just on the efficacy of the treatment in question but on its risk/benefit balance. The evidence shows that the risks of some alternative therapies can be considerable, a fact that is almost totally neglected in the guidelines. Therefore, the recommendations of the new guidelines by the American College of Physicians entitled ‘Noninvasive Treatments for Acute, Subacute, and Chronic Low Back Pain: A Clinical Practice Guideline From the American College of Physicians’ are in several aspects not entirely correct and need to be reconsidered.

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